AS 101 Module 1 Quiz Review.docx - AS 101 Module 1 Quiz...

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AS 101 Module 1 Quiz Review Our place in the universe: CERN Is a high-energy, physics research facility near Geneva, Switzerland 150 million km= 1.5 x 10 8 km (in scientific notation we write this as). o That is also known as 1 AU or astronomical unit The Sun: o Sun is a star. It was formed from such a cloud about 5 billion years ago o The Sun is 110 times larger in diameter than the Earth o The Earth orbits the Sun once a year o Mars is only 1.5 AU from the Sun o The average distance from the Sun to the Earth = 1.5 x 10 8 km = 1 AU o Average distance from Venus to the Sun = 0.7AU The orbital radius of our outermost planet, Neptune = 40 AU Surrounding solar system: 2 regions of comets & asteroids o These objects are small & generate no visible light of their own Light from the Sun reaches Earth in 8’but it reaches Neptune in over 4 hours A light-year (ly): simply the distance light travels in one year. Our closest star is Proxima Centauri (4.2ly from the Earth) Sirius is the brightest star in the constellation Canis Major (The Great Dog) Procyon is the brightest star in the constellation Canis Minor (The Little Dog) The Milky Way Galaxy o the spiral galaxy, one of three major types of galaxies o One of the oldest galaxies o its age possibly as old as 13 billion years o over 100 billion stars spread over the cosmos about 100,000 ly in diameter Our nearest galactic neighbor: the Andromeda galaxy is about 2.5 million ly away and is headed in our direction Our galaxy is part of a cluster of few dozen galaxies called Local Group. o Cluster are group into supercluster
The cosmic calendar- concepts of time: the formation of the universe and its age -> us to believe: it has been about 13.8 billion years since the Big Bang Cosmic calendar (a concept devised by Carl Sagan who was a well-known astronomer in the latter part of the 1900s). Milky way galaxy is about 13.8 billion years old o Big Bang occurred = midnight on January 1 o Milky Way Galaxy starts to coalesce = late February or early March o Our solar system starts being built = mid-August o Primitive life exists on Earth = by the end of September o complex living structures were formed = mid-December o Dinosaurs roamed Earth = December 25 o The end of the dinosaur era (65 million years ago) =December 30 Patterns in the Night Sky On a clear night: 3,000 individual stars visible to the naked eye o All these stars are part of Milky Way Galaxy Star patterns are called constellations; all of them have names and some you will recognize (Orion, Cassiopeia, Canis Major, Taurus, Scorpio, Libra, Pisces). The most prominent night sky objects are our Moon o The Moon's distance from Earth = 384,000 km (30 times Earth’s diameter) o The Moon's diameter = 3476 km (1/4 of size of Earth) When we look at a particular pattern, such as the constellation Orion: o we are seeing stars that lie at different distances from Earth o these stars are not in a plane but are spread out in all three dimensions o these stars are moving in different directions As we look at different parts of the sky, we see different patterns. As we look at the sky from different places on Earth, we’ll see other patterns

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