Important Stuff

Important Stuff - Chapter 2: Binomial nomenclature: two...

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Chapter 2: Binomial nomenclature: two names, genus then species. Catastrophism: view that the earth’s geological landscape is a result of cataclysmic events. Fixity of species: that species can never change. Inheritance of acquired characteristics, the use-disuse theory: states that a trait can be acquired by an animal during its lifetime can be passed on to offspring. (giraffe neck) Natural selection: genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals. Uniformitarianism: theory that the earth’s features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past. James Usher (1581-1656): Irish archbishop that believed earth was created in 4004 BC. Copernicus (1514): Polish mathematician that believed earth revolved around sun. Galileo (1600s): Italian mathematician restated Copernicus’ heliocentric belief. John Ray (1627-1705): Developed concept of species and grouped species’ into genus. Believed in the fixity of species, wrote Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of Creation , published in 1691. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778): Swedish naturalist developed classification of animals and plants called Systems of Nature published in 1735. Established the system of binomial nomenclature, and added class and order. Basis of taxonomy. Included humans in his classification of animals. Believed in the fixity of species. Count Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1788): Keeper of the King’s Gardens in Paris. Stressed the importance of change in the universe and the changing nature of species in Natural History published in 1749. Believed that when groups of organisms migrated to new areas would gradually adapt. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802): Charles’ grandfather. Stressed that life had originated from the seas and that all species had a common ancestor in Zoonomia , which is entirely in verse. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829): First scientist to try to explain the evolutionary process. Believed that if the external environment changed an animal’s activity patterns would also change and result in increased or decreased use of certain body parts which would be modified, aka inheritance of acquired characteristics , or the use-disuse theory (giraffe neck). Coined the term ‘biology’. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832): French vertebrate paleontologist who introduced the concept of extinction by fossils. Insisted on the fixity of species and suggested catastrophism. Floods would wipeout stock and areas would restock with new similar species from unaffected areas. After each disaster migrants were more modern due to more recent creation events- last taking place depicted in Genesis. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): English clergyman and economist who wrote
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Important Stuff - Chapter 2: Binomial nomenclature: two...

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