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Lecture 24 (4-17) - The Human Brain Evolutionary...

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The Human Brain Evolutionary perspectives Functional issues Human language Brain Anatomy Three main structures Brain stem Cerebellum Cerebrum Cerebrum divided into two hemispheres Cerebrum Has undergone the most change in human evolution Contains four major lobes Limbic system deeply embedded in midline section of the brain Limbic system involved in emotions Encephalization Measure of brain size relative to body size EQ – encephalization quotient: ratio of actual brain size to expected size (based on the body size of the mammal) Does higher EQ mean that the animal is smarter? Yes and no. Terry Deacon’s Research Animals face strong selection pressures for brain AND body size e.g., Chihuahas have higher EQs than German shepherds, but are not “smarter” e.g., colobine monkeys have lower EQs than cercopithecine monkeys (leafy diet selects for larger gut and body size) Encephalization in Human Evolution
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