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Unformatted text preview: ANTHROPOLOGY 1: INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY DR. SANDRA HOLLIMON SPRING 2007 Final Exam Review Anatomical features: (who has them and what do they indicate?) • sagittal crest – gorillas • zygomatic arch – gorillas, chimps • external auditory meatus – OWM, tarsiers, apes, humans • ectotympanic ring- NWM, Strepsirhines (lemurs, lorises) Diets: (who has them and how does this relate to anatomy?) • Frugivory – tamarins, cebids, atelids, orangutans; • Insectivory – strepsirhines, tarsiers, callitrichids; • Folivory – cebids, atelids, colobines; • Gumivory – strepsirhines, marmosets; • Omnivory – cercopithecines; Living Ape species: (what are their habitats, distribution, diets, social organization, unusual behavior, anatomy, locomotion, etc.?) • Pan – relatively big canines, large zygomatic arches, large brow ridges, relatively sexually dimorphic (canines, bodies), omnivorous, arboreal quadrupedalism, terrestrial knuckle-walking (long arms relative to legs, slightly curved fingers, robust knuckles), occasional bipedalism, multi-male, multi-female (fission-fussion). o Pan paniscus (bonobos) – arms not as long for body size, smaller head, limited to one area in the Congo, less aggressive, more sexual variety o Pan troglodytes (common chimp) – arms long for body size, larger head, in many areas in equatorial Africa, more aggressive, less sexual-variety • Pongo pygmaeus – large close orbits, upper portion of the face angles slightly, second incisor is smaller than the first, very pronounced sexual dimorphism (fatty pads, canines, bodies), frugivorous, supplemented by everything else, primarily arboreal quadrumanous, terrestrial quadrupedal, occasional bipedalism, solitary • Gorilla gorilla – large zygomatic arches, large brow ridges, large teeth (esp canines), large mandibles, sagittal crest, pronounced sexual dimorphism (canines, bodies), folivorous, occasionally frugivorous, primarily terrestrial knuckle- walking (long arms relative to legs, slightly curved fingers, robust knuckles), polygynous. Primate Taxonomy: (review the taxonomy in your Lab Workbook; be sure that you are familiar with these groups, which primates are members of these groups, and the shared characteristics of members of the groups such as anatomy, dental formula, social organization, etc.) • Strepsirhines (lemurs, lorises) – unfused mandibles, large orbits, grooming claw, post-orbital bar, more reliance on olfaction, no color vision, prognathic face, ectotympanic ring, sharp crested molars, dental comb, 2:1:3:3, gumivory, insectivory, supplemented by fruits and leaves, nocturnal, solitary or small groups, vertical clinging and leaping, slow quadrupedalism • Haplorhines (tarsiers, anthropoids) o Tarsiers – small bodies, nocturnal, insectivory, vertical clinging and leaping, solitary or pair-bonding, partially closed orbits, dry nose, separate upper lip, incisors, external auditory meatus....
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