Lecture 09 (2-13) - Living Primates and Adaptations III...

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Living Primates and Adaptations III LESSER AND GREAT APES Catarrhines 2: Hominoids, Apes and Humans Y-5 lower molars Includes the largest of all primates Leaf eating (folivory), fruit eating (frugivory) and omnivory (diverse diet) Less specialized than cercopithecoids Hominids Pongines ( Pongo) (Orangutan) (35.6-78.5 kg) Hominines Pan Gorilla (Gorilla) (71.0-175.2 kg) Homo (Humans) (42-73/47-78kg) Hylobatids Hylobates Molecular phylogenies indicate that humans share common ancestry with African apes Hominoids Hominids Great apes and humans Largest living primates Very large brains, very complex behavior Slow growing, slow reproducing Hylobatids small body mass, Pair bonding, territorial, low dimorphism females also have large canines Most Hylobates species Gibbons Hylobates syndactylus Siamangs All Hylobates Small, pair bonding, territorial, low sexual dimorphism Highly suspensory (Brachiation) Frugivore, territorial Gibbons: pair-bonds, joint territory defense Gibbon pairs cooperatively defend a feeding territory and raise young They use daily duet singing to announce their occupancy of a territory, each sex drives off rivals of the same sex Specializations for brachiation, coupled with small body size, predispose gibbons to walk bipedally when on the ground.
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Hylobatids have an inflatable throat sac (called a gular sac): resonating chamber for the vocal chords, making the sounds even louder. Hominids
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Lecture 09 (2-13) - Living Primates and Adaptations III...

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