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After reading about this exemplar, you will be able to:1.Describe the pathophysiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and directand indirect causes of substance abuse.2.Identify risk factors associated with substance abuse.3.Illustrate the nursing process in providing culturally competent care acrossthe life span for individuals with a substance abuse disorder.4.Formulate priority nursing diagnoses appropriate for individuals with asubstance abuse disorder.5.Summarize therapies used by interdisciplinary teams in the collaborativecare of individuals with a substance abuse disorder.6.Plan evidence-based care for individuals with a substance abuse disorder andtheir families in collaboration with other members of the healthcare team.7.Evaluate expected outcomes for individuals with a substance abuse disorder.
Substance abuse is the use of any chemical in a fashioninconsistent with medical or culturally defined socialnorms despite physical, psychological, or social adverseeffects.Substance dependence occurs when the individual can nolonger control the use of the substance, continues to usedespite adverse effects, and experiences withdrawalsymptoms without continued use of the substance.Tolerance
Complex, multifactorial process that involves biological,genetic, psychological, and sociocultural factorsKindlingLong-term changes in brain neurotransmission that occur afterrepeated detoxificationsNeuron sensitivity increased – cravings for the substanceincreases with repeated detoxificationsRipple Effect of Addiction
Humans seek pleasure, avoidstress, painIn 2011, 8% of Americans ages12 and older classified withsubstance dependence, abuseIllicit use of prescription drugson the rise