Computer crimes (part1) Nadia Abu HasanContentsDefinition ( 2 terms - computer and hacking)Section 3 of CCA (unauthorized access only)Section 4 of CCA (unauthorized access with intention to commit further offence) Section 5 of CCA (unauthorized modification) Other sections (S.6,7,8,9)Definition“COMPUTER”: Section 2(1) of CCA 1997.- data processing device or a group of suchinterconnected or related devices, performing logical, arithmetic, storage and displayfunctions,“HACKING”: The gaining of unauthorized access to data in a system or computer for funand for malicious intention. Section 3 of CCA 1997•Unauthorized access•Merely opening the computer is unauthorized. •Elements:•Causes a computer to perform any function (actus reus)•At the time he causes the computer to perform any function, it must be coupled withintention to secure access (mens rea)•He has that knowledge that access is unauthorized•Related section and cases:•Section 2(5)-unauthorized access •R v Gold and another  2 ALL ER 186 – hacking of computer, not guilty because itis temporary & not permanent. •DPP v Bignell  –an officer used the Police National Computer to obtain information for his ownuse. However the officer could not be prosecuted as his actions were not withinthe Act’s definition of ‘unauthorised access.’But it was criticized because it wasfor a bad intention/usage.