Final Review Sheet.docx - Final Review Sheet Chapter 11 \u2013 Mendelian Genetics Phenotype characteristics that you see(ex eye color plant color tall

Final Review Sheet.docx - Final Review Sheet Chapter 11...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 10 pages.

Final Review Sheet Chapter 11 – Mendelian Genetics Phenotype : characteristics that you see (ex. eye color, plant color, tall, short) o Composed of genotype, environmental influences, & random developmental events Genotype : genetic constitution “Blending” Hypothesis : attempts to explain how a red and white flower come together to make a pink flower Mendel’s Experiment : explains how the traits are passed to different generations and the blending hypothesis o Bred pea plants studying 7 characters envisioning genes Seed coat/flower color [grey & purple {or} white & white], seed color [yellow {or} green], seed shape [smooth {or} wrinkled], pod color [green {or} yellow], pod shape [inflated {or} pinched], stem height [tall {or} short], flower position [axial {or} terminal] Successful because the organism he chose didn’t have too much variation of traits few contrasting traits and he had accurate quantitative records for the huge amount of offspring so there are a lot of things to compare Discovered basis for transmission of hereditary traits Character : feature that can be passed to different generations and can change between individuals (ex. Flower color & height) Trait : each variant of character (ex. Purple flower, tall plant) True-breeding : plants that self-pollinate and have no variation for a trait o True -breeding individuals are produced by repeated backcrossing. Good organisms for Mendelian Studies are: o Easy to grow o Bears flowers and fruits in the same year that it is planted o Produces large amount of offspring Cross : controlled mating (under certain conditions) or self-pollinating of two individuals o Obtain desired genotype & deduce genotype of parents Selfing : individual with both reproductive organs reproduce with itself Monohybrid crosses : always involved alleles of a single gene (ex. Same type of plant except differentiated by the color) Dihybrid cross : always involves alleles of two genes P Generation: parental generation of true-breeding plants F 1 Generation: children of P generation (all dominant trait expressed phenotypically) o Have heterozygous genotype F 2 Generation: children from crossing F 1 with F 1 (3 dominant trait:1recessive trait) o 1 homozygous dominant, 2 heterozygous genotypes o 1 homozygous recessive genotype Gene (“particulate”) hypothesis of inheritance : Mendel reasoned that parents pass on particulate factors to their offspring o Factors remained distinct (not blended) for crosses with two different factors from generation to generation Alternative versions of genes (factors) = alleles Organisms inherit one allele from each parent at the same locus (2 alleles) Different loci of the 2 alleles has a dominant allele that determines the phenotype and a recessive allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype
Image of page 1
Two alleles for a heritable character separate (segregate) during gamete formation (meiosis) and end up in different gametes as haploids Test Cross : when individual has the dominant trait but genotype is unknown o Cross individual to pure-breed homozygous recessive o
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 10 pages?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture