Mini – Hydroelectric Power Plant
• Hydro power is probably the first form of automated power production which is not human / animal driven. • Moving a grind stone for milling first, developed into the driving of an electrical generator. • Next to steam it was for long the main power source for
• Its continual availability does not require any power storage (unlike wind / solar power). • In order to create electricity from hydropower, two parameters are critical: • Flow; or the minimum amount of water that is constantly available throughout the entire year • Head; the difference in height
What is a mini hydro power plant • Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale suitable for local community and industry, or to contribute to distributed generation in a regional electricity grid. • The definition of a small hydro project varies, but a generating capacity of 1 to 20 megawatts is common.
Purpose of a Hydro Power Plant • Hydropower is one of the oldest power sources on the planet, generating power when flowing water spins a wheel or turbine. • The purpose of a Hydro power plant is to harness this hydropower to produce electrical energy • Hydropower plants are a form of renewable energy. They operate using stored water in a dam; the water falls by gravity through penstocks to water turbines located below the dam.
• Hydroelectric power plants are power plants that produce electrical energy by driving turbines and generators thanks to the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. Small hydro power uses the flow of water to turn turbines that are connected to a generator for the production of electricity. Small hydro is divided into further categories depending on its size, such as mini- (less than 1000kW), micro-hydro (less than 100kW) and pico- hydro (less than 5kW) (EHSA 2005); the definitions may vary according to manufacturers and countries, as there is no internationally accepted definition of small hydropower. In China, small hydropower refers to capacities of up to 25 MW, in India of up to 15 MW and in Sweden ‘small’ refers to up to 1.5 MW. However, a capacity of up to 10 MW is a generally accepted norm by the European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA), the European Commission, and UNIPEDE (International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electricity).
• In general, there are three different configurations of hydro power plants • Conventional Plant • Pumped Storage Plant • Run-of the river Plant
Conventional Plant • Hydropower projects with a reservoir (storage hydropower) store water behind a dam for times when river flow is low • Therefore power generation is more stable and less variable than for RoR plants
• The generating stations are located at the dam toe or further downstream, connected to the reservoir through tunnels or pipelines • Reservoir hydropower plants can have major environmental and social impacts due to the flooding of land for the reservoir • Type and design of reservoirs are decided by the landscape and in many parts of the world are inundated river valleys where the reservoir is an artificial lake
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