Sample-solar water heater.docx - TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT.i Acknowledgement.iv Abstract.v Objective.vi Methodology.vii 1 INPUT DATA.1 1.1 Hot

Sample-solar water heater.docx - TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF...

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TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................................................... i Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................................................... iv Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................ v Objective ................................................................................................................................................ vi Methodology ......................................................................................................................................... vii 1. INPUT DATA .............................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Hot Water Consumption in a Cafeteria ................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Daily Sunshine Hour ............................................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Temperature ........................................................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Wind Speed ............................................................................................................................................ 3 1.4 Solar intensity ........................................................................................................................................ 4 2. Literature Review of the Previous Project ............................................................................................... 5 3. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Benefits of Solar Water Heating Systems .............................................................................................. 7 3.1.1 Economical Benefits ...................................................................................................................... 7 3.1.2 Environmental Benefits ................................................................................................................. 7 3.1.3 Sustainability Benefits ................................................................................................................... 7 3.2 Types of Solar Collectors ...................................................................................................................... 8 3.2.1 Glazed Flat-Plate Collectors .......................................................................................................... 8 3.2.2 Unglazed Collectors ....................................................................................................................... 8 3.3 Design Aspect of Solar Collectors ......................................................................................................... 9 3.3.2 Some Design Consideration In Solar Collectors ........................................................................... 9 3.3.3 Some of the Problems Inherent In the Nature of Solar Radiation ............................................... 10 3.3.4 Flat Plate Collectors ..................................................................................................................... 10 3.4 Fin Efficiency, Fe ................................................................................................................................ 15 3.5 Fin Efficiency Factor, Fl ..................................................................................................................... 15 4. BOILING AND CONDENSATION ........................................................................................................ 17 4.1 Boiling Heat Transfer .......................................................................................................................... 17 4.2 Condensation Heat Transfer ............................................................................................................... 17 4.3 Film Condensation inside Horizontal Tubes ....................................................................................... 18 5. HEAT PIPE THEORY ............................................................................................................................. 19 5.1 The Operation of a Heat Pipe ............................................................................................................. 20 5.2 Heat Pipe Merits ................................................................................................................................. 21 5.3 Limitations of Heat Pipes .................................................................................................................... 22 5.4 Applications of heat pipes ................................................................................................................... 22 i
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6.1 Fluid, Wick Structure, and Materials for Heat Pipes .......................................................................... 23 6.1.1 Fluid Selection ............................................................................................................................. 23 6.1.2 Wick Selection ............................................................................................................................. 24 6.3.3 Material Selection ........................................................................................................................ 24 6.2 Heat Pipe Design Procedures ............................................................................................................. 25 6.2.1 Heat Pipe Diameter ...................................................................................................................... 25 6.2.2 Design of Heat Pipe Containers ................................................................................................... 26 6.2.3 Wick Design ................................................................................................................................. 26 6.2.3.1 Wick Design Procedures ........................................................................................................... 26 6.2.4 Limitation In Heat Pipe ................................................................................................................ 28 7. ANALYSIS OF HEAT PIPE ................................................................................................................... 31 7.1 Design of Heat Pipes ......................................................................................................................... 31 7.1.2 Working Fluid Selection .............................................................................................................. 32 7.1.3 Heat Pipe Material Selection ....................................................................................................... 32 7.2 Wick Selection ..................................................................................................................................... 32 7.3 Checking Against Heat Pipe Limitations ............................................................................................ 33 7.3.1 Checking Whether the Fluid in the Heat Pipe Is In the Incompressible State Using the Assumed Values of D v .......................................................................................................................................... 33 7.3 .2 Capillary Limitation .................................................................................................................... 33 7.3 .3 Sonic Limitation .......................................................................................................................... 35 7.3. 4 .Entrainment Limit ...................................................................................................................... 35 7.3.5 Boiling Limitation ........................................................................................................................ 35 7.4 Design of Heat Pipe Container ........................................................................................................... 36 8. FIN (COLLECTOR) DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 38 8.1 Calculation of Losses .......................................................................................................................... 38 8.2 Fin Efficiency, Fe ................................................................................................................................ 40 8.3 Fin Efficiency Factor, Fl ..................................................................................................................... 41 9. INSULATION DESIGN ........................................................................................................................... 45 9.1 Heat Pipe Insulation ............................................................................................................................ 45 9.2 Tanker Insulation ................................................................................................................................. 45 10. MANUFACTURING .............................................................................................................................. 49 10.1 Heat Pipe ........................................................................................................................................... 49 10.2 Glass Cover ....................................................................................................................................... 49 10.3 Absorber (Collector Fin) ................................................................................................................... 49 10.4 Side Frames of Collector ................................................................................................................... 49 10.5 Front and Back Frames of the Collector ........................................................................................... 50 10.6 Insulation ........................................................................................................................................... 50 All insulations are made of urethane foam ................................................................................................ 50 10.7 Preparation of Main Support Frame ................................................................................................. 50 10.8 Preparation of the Collector Frame .................................................................................................. 51 10.9 Tanker ................................................................................................................................................ 51 ii
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11. CLEANING OF PARTS ......................................................................................................................... 52 11.1 Cleaning ............................................................................................................................................. 52 11.2 Evacuation and Charging .................................................................................................................. 52 12. COST ANALYSES .................................................................................................................................. 53 13. Differences between this and the Previous Project on solar water heater employing heat pipes...54 14. ASSEMBLY ............................................................................................................................................. 55 15. Conclusions and Recommendation ....................................................................................................... 56 15.1 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................... 56 15.2 Recommendation ............................................................................................................................... 57 Reference ....................................................................................................................................................... 58 Appendix .................................................................................................................................................... 59 iii
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Acknowledgement iv
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Abstract v
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vi
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Objective vii
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Methodology In general to do this project the following procedures were under taken. Necessary input data such as amount of hot water, temperature, wind speed, sunshine hour, and solar intensity for design were collected.
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