History Chapter 4.pdf - SLIDE 1 Chapter 4 The Atlantic...

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1SLIDE 1Chapter 4The Atlantic World, 1492–1800Europeans explore and colonize the Americas, disrupting native civilizations, andbuild the slave trade to support plantations in the New World.SLIDE 2Section 1: Spain Builds an American EmpireSection 2: European Nations Settle North AmericaSection 3: The Atlantic Slave TradeSection 4: The Columbian Exchange and Global TradeSLIDE 3Section 1: Spain Builds an American EmpireThe voyages of Columbus prompt the Spanish to establish colonies in theAmericas.SLIDE 4Section 1: Spain Builds an American EmpireThe Voyages of ColumbusFirst EncountersGenoese sea captainChristopher Columbusreaches Americas (1492)Thinks he is in East Indies, calls natives “los indios”—IndiansActually lands on an island, probably in the BahamasUnable to find gold, he claims many islands for SpainIn 1493, he sets out for the Americas again with a large fleetSpain aims to set up colonies—lands controlled by a foreign nationSLIDE 5Continued The Voyages of ColumbusOther Explorers Take to the SeasPedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal (1500)Amerigo Vespucci identifies South America as new continent (1501)In 1507, German mapmaker names the continent AmericaVasco Núñez de Balboa reaches the Pacific OceanFerdinand Magellan leaves to sail around the world (1519)
2Magellan is killed, but some of his men return to Spain in 1522SLIDE 6Spanish Conquests in MexicoConquistadorsIn 1519, Hernando Cortés—Spanish adventurer—lands in MexicoHe and others become known as conquistadors—Spanish conquerorsCortés Conquers the AztecsCortés and 600 men reach Aztec capital of TenochtitlánBy 1521, they conquer Aztec empireConquest aided by superior weapons, Native American alliesEuropean diseases wipe out large numbers of AztecsSLIDE 7Spanish Conquests in PeruAnother ConquistadorSpanish conquerorFrancisco Pizarroleads force to Peru in 1532Pizarro Subdues the IncaPizarro kills Atahualpa—Inca ruler—and defeats the IncaSpain’s Pattern of ConquestSpanish men and Native American women have childrenResult is large mestizo—mixed Spanish and native—populationEncomienda system—Spanish force Native Americans to work for themThe Portuguese in BrazilIn 1530s, Portuguese settle in Brazil, begin growing sugarSLIDE 8Spain’s Influence ExpandsGrowth of Spanish Power

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