Plains Indians 382-383, 394-– Survival of the Plains Indians depended upon the massive buffalo (technically bison), herds – the largest animal herds on earth – which roamed the West. In 1800, there were approximately 60,000,000 buffalo in North America. By 1900, approximately 500 buffalo remained alive. The Indians were killing buffalo by the thousands; however, their weapons weren’t sufficient enough to kill buffalo’s en masse. As the railroad’s moved West, the buffalo became a cheap source of food for workers. Men like William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody were employed by the railroads to slaughter buffalo for human consumption. These buffalo hunters were able to kill their prey with one or two shots from their repeating rifles, accelerating the rate of slaughter. Buffalo hides were prized as well for their use both as clothing and as belts in the machines of the burgeoning second industrial revolution. Settlersrealized that the survival of the Plains Indians depended upon the buffalo and began a slaughter campaign of those animals in an attempt to deny Plains Indians their major food resource and thereby subdue them. By the early 1900’s, the Plains Indians population had been reduced by war, disease, and the decimation of the buffalo. Those who remained were concentrated on reservations.Californios- coolios 383-384 As Chinese communities grew larger and more conspicuous in western cities, anti-Chinese sentiment among white residents became increasingly strong. Anti-coolie clubs emerged in the 1860’s and 1870’s. They sought a ban on employing Chinese and organized boycotts of products made with Chinese labor. Some of these clubs attacked Chinese workers in the streets and weresuspected of setting fire to factories in which Chinese worked. Such activities reflected the resentment ofmany white workers toward Chinese laborers for accepting low wages and thus under-cutting union members. As the political value of attacking the Chinese grew in California, the Democratic Party took upthe call. So did the Workingmen’s Party of California – created in 1878 by Dennis Kearney, and Irish immigrant – which gained significant political power in the state largely on the basis of its hostility to the Chinese. By the mid 1880’s, anti-Chinese agitation and violence had spread up and down the pacific coast and into other areas of the West. But anti-Chinese sentiment did not rest on economic grounds alone. It rested on cultural and racial arguments as well. For example, reformer Henry George described the Chinese as products of a civilization that had failed to progress, that remained mired in barbarism and savagery. They were therefore, “unassimilable” and should be excluded. Chinese Exclusion Acts-(386): In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned Chinese emigration to the United States for 10 years and barred Chinese already in the county from becoming naturalized citizens. It reflected the growing fear of unemployment and labor unrest throughout the nation and the belief that excluding “an industrial army of Asiatic laborers” would protect “American” workers and help reduce class conflict.