Test review for Tuesday

Test review for Tuesday - Practice questions, second test,...

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Practice questions, second test, fall 2005, Bio 203 1. contrast cladistics and phenetics- Cladistcs are a taxonomical approach that classifies organisms according to the order in time at which branches arise along a phylogenetic tree, without considering the degree of morphological divergence. Uses homology analogy, or phylogeny. Phenetics-An approach to taxonomy based entirely on measurable similarities and differences in phenotypic characters, without consideration of homology, analogy, or phylogeny. Uses only measures of divergence. 2. Describe Ernst Mayr's views towards systematics- Mayr of a champion of evolutionary taxonomy- (History from 1960s –1990s) believed in evolution but was skeptable of our ability to reconstruct phylogony, partially on phylogony and partially on other characters. Archetypical view. Birds with Mammals endotherms. (Genes etc.) 3. Pre-1859, what was the prevailing framework by which systematists were working?- Linneane system- Kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species 4. contrast "classification" and "phylogenetics"- phylogenetic taxomony- contructed based on hierarchical classification of taxonomic groups nested with more inclusive groups. Shows hierarchy of classification. 5. How did the acceptance of evolution change the practice of systematics? The use of phylogenetic trees. 6. What's the difference between a cladogram and a phylogram? - In a phylogram the length of branches is important as it is representative of time. 7. How is phylogenetic taxonomy different from Linnaen taxonomy? Is the difference between these classification that Lennean taxonomy is based on character grouping and phylogenetics are based on a phylogenetic tree. 8. Describe how the viewpoint of 'natural theology' affects how one would classify organisms. – Natural theologians saw the adaptation of organisms as evidence that the Creator had designed each and every species for a particular purpose; this would be how close we are to relating to God. 9. give a synapomorphy of the clade including only Chordates and Echinoderms. -Deuterostomes- Eight-cell stage- radioal and indeterminate., In the entercoelous development of deuterostomes the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenterons. Anus develops from blastopore. 10. presence of wings in bats and birds is an instance of a) convergence, b) reversal, c) homology, d) symplesiomorphy, e) synapomorphy, f) more than one of the above.
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11. Are limbs convergent? Why is the above an unfair question? Convergence is a comparison between two organisms. 12. Use the following matrix and the parsimony method to decide which of the listed trees is the best explanation of the data. What is the parsimony length of each tree? Are any of the characters unhelpful ('uninformative') for determining these relationships? A
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Test review for Tuesday - Practice questions, second test,...

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