Lecture9_SyntaxII_LING100_WT1-2019-20_online.pdf - LING 100 Introduction to Language and Linguistics Week 5 Syntax Grammaticality Phrase Structure Rules

Lecture9_SyntaxII_LING100_WT1-2019-20_online.pdf - LING 100...

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LING 100 Introduction to Language and Linguistics Week 5: Syntax Grammaticality, Phrase Structure Rules, Structural Ambiguity
Midterm #1: Phonetics (Ch. 3), Phonology (Ch. 4), Morphology (Ch. 6) NO IPA CHART Phonetics: English IPA symbols & descriptions, vocal tract landmarks, etc. Phonology: Phoneme/Phone/Allophone, Complementary/Contrastive Distribution, etc. Morphology: morphemes, affixes, allomorphy, word trees Midterm Study Guide is on canvas October 16 th during class time 001 = 11:00 – 11:50 002 = 14:00 – 14:50 Course Organisation
TODAY Phrase Structure Rules Grammaticality & Grammatical Relations Structural Ambiguity
Grammaticality Sequences of words conform to the rules = well-formed or grammatical Do not follow rules = *ill-formedor ungrammatical (marked with asterisk)Ungrammaticality based on syntactic structure; a rule that disallows a structureGrammaticality does NOT depend on: whether you heard the sentence before whether the sentence “makes sense” or not e.g. Colourless green ideas sleep furiously. the truth of the sentence
Grammatical Relations Syntactic knowledge lets us determine grammatical relations in sentence: subject, object, indirect object. Subject Verb Object Mary hired Bill . Bill was hired by Mary. Passive: object becomes subject and subject becomes indirect object
Grammatical Relations Syntactic rules show grammatical relations among words of sentence & when structural differences make meaning differences or not Compare: “Max hit Bob” vs “Bob hit Max” Compare: “Mary hired Bill” vs “Bill was hired by Mary” Syntactic rules: produce/understand limitless sentences never produced/heard before – creative aspect of language use
Phrase Structure Rules Phrase structure tree: represents knowledge speaker has about structure of sentences in languages Certain patterns emerge, and not all possible patterns occur Although can generate unlimited sentences, we may not store unlimited phrase structure trees Instead, series of phrase structure rules generate all sentences we might ever want to say generative grammar
Sentences Sentences = complete thought & must contain NP & VP (in English) S à NP VP Phrase structure rules map out structure of grammatical sentences, but can also tell why sentences are ungrammatical e.g. * the fish = VP missing * swims silently = NP missing
Constituent structure: Tree diagrams Every labelled node of the tree ( blue letters ) is a constituent (phrase or sentence) Every phrase has a head The other words are dependents A B C D E F G H I

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