Lectures Exam 1

Lectures Exam 1 - What is psychology? I. Definition of...

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What is psychology? I. Definition of Psychology A. Psychology was coined in the 16 th century as the study of psyche ‘soul or mind’ B. 19 th century psychology was the study of consciousness C. Early middle 20 th century psychology defined as the scientific study of behavior D. 1960’s cognitive psychologists defined as the science of behavior and cognition Research Methods I. Goals of Research A. Determine it a variable influences some form of behavior II. Method of Psychology Research A. Descriptive Research- Describing what you see. Not very scientific 1. Naturalistic Observation- watching people in their natural environment. Unethical? 2. Case Study- Study one person in significant detail, get in-depth analysis 3. Survey- polls and surveys to determine people’s attitudes. Hard because sometimes people lie 4. Archival Research- looking at a record archive. Historians rely on it much more than psychologists B. Correlational Research- looking at two variables to see if they have a co-relationship C. Experimental Research- Backbone of rigorous research. Most trusted 1. Objective and systematic method of research in any scientific analysis 2. Two basic steps: a. Vary the quantity or quality of the variable b. See if the variables had an impact on behavior **To draw conclusions, must have something to compare it to: so not everyone receives same thing 3. Independent Variable(IV): factor or variable being studied 4. Dependent Variable(DV): Behavior being studied involves some measure of behavior 5. Control other variables 6. Experimental Group: Group of participants exposed to experimental condition or variables of interest 7. Control Group: Group of participants not exposed to experimental condition or variable of interest D. Sample size (n) – refers to sample or number of people in experiment Biological Roots of Behavior I. Neuroscience A. Study of the biological and chemical changes that cause and occur in response to behavior and cognition
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B. Brief History 1. Trepanation- Ancient practice of drilling holes in skull to release evil spirits 2. Phrenology- Belief that bumps on skull reveal mental “faculties” and character traits II. Organization of The Nervous System A. Central Nervous System (CNS)- Brain and Spinal Chord B. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)- Neural fibers outside of the brain and spinal cord (consists of sensory and motor neurons) 1. Somatic Nervous System(SNS)- Sensory motor neurons involved in the control of voluntary muscle groups 2. Automatic Nervous System (ANS)- Control of glands and internal organs(ex. Heart) involuntarily A. Sympathetic Nervous System- alarm or arousal system of the ANS
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Lectures Exam 1 - What is psychology? I. Definition of...

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