Quiz 2 - 11:12:00 AM From Homer to Hesiod Eighth to seventh...

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07/11/2007 13:12:00 From Homer to Hesiod Eighth to seventh century BCE -Homer’s text written down before Hesiod’s was (according to most) -Hesiod about 25-50 years later Transition from oral poets to rhapsode -Homer made up poems on the spot (oral poet), improvised performance -Hesiod is a rhapsode (perform poetry at festivals-sometimes religious-but different from Homer because he would memorize it before reciting) Oral poet -improvisation within a tradition (tradition of oral poets, handed down) -used to transmit folk tales Rhapsode -traditional tales in hymns (that have been composed/memorized, not improvised) -more pious/religious than Homer’s • Literary artist/writer-composed; tradition is Homer (and Hesiod) -trying to entertain by telling a traditional tale; later, poets break out of tradition -folk tales improvised by oral poets, then memorized, then literary artists that do fiction • Folktale-myth-fiction ( pseudos ) – Hesiod and the Muses (example of fiction) Herodotus (5th cent BCE)-first writer/historian
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-Homer more respected than Hesiod “It was Homer and Hesiod who created for the Greeks a genealogy of the gods, gave the gods their epithets, distributed their honors and competences, and stamped them with their form.” -as if Greek religion didn’t exist until Homer and Hesiod came along -reveals Greek attitude toward the two, how their texts became religious texts -Homer and Hesiod often differ in what they say about the gods: problem that Greeks try to overlook Creation Myths (one place they differ) • Homer: Okeanos (person and body of water) and Tethys (person and body of water) are the parents of all; a horizon of water -evidence that Homer lived on an island, because looks like everything comes out of the water, like water is the origin of all things • Cretan Theogony (mostly seen in Apollodorus): Emphasis on Cretan (island) locales and rituals -can see that in Hesiod • Hesiod focuses on genealogy- gods as a family; oikos (family and property family owns) 4 Major themes in Hesiod • Proliferation and distribution -endless process as all these things are coming to be -problem is where will all these things be? Where distribution comes in, explains how
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order comes to be • Movement from natural forces to anthropomorphic gods • Transition from female to male power -at the beginning, roles of Earth (Gaia) and Night are emphasized—females -but culminates in male power (Zeus) • Creation of a cosmos (word for universe and for order); Zeus (king of gods) as cosmocrator, not creator -he doesn’t create the cosmos/universe, he just insures the order of it • Three/triads/trebling -goddess and god who create offspring that often come in sets of three -shows influence of folk tale, even though he’s more of a literary artist/rhapsode,
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Quiz 2 - 11:12:00 AM From Homer to Hesiod Eighth to seventh...

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