Interactive Computer Graphics: A Top-Down Approach Using OpenGL (4th Edition)

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Seam Carving for Content-Aware Image Resizing Shai Avidan Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs Ariel Shamir The Interdisciplinary Center & MERL Figure 1: A seam is a connected path of low energy pixels in an image. On the left is the original image with one horizontal and one vertical seam. In the middle the energy function used in this example is shown (the magnitude of the gradient), along with the vertical and horizontal path maps used to calculate the seams. By automatically carving out seams to reduce image size, and inserting seams to extend it, we achieve content-aware resizing . The example on the top right shows our result of extending in one dimension and reducing in the other, compared to standard scaling on the bottom right. Abstract Effective resizing of images should not only use geometric con- straints, but consider the image content as well. We present a sim- ple image operator called seam carving that supports content-aware image resizing for both reduction and expansion. A seam is an op- timal 8-connected path of pixels on a single image from top to bot- tom, or left to right, where optimality is defined by an image energy function. By repeatedly carving out or inserting seams in one direc- tion we can change the aspect ratio of an image. By applying these operators in both directions we can retarget the image to a new size. The selection and order of seams protect the content of the image, as defined by the energy function. Seam carving can also be used for image content enhancement and object removal. We support various visual saliency measures for defining the energy of an im- age, and can also include user input to guide the process. By storing the order of seams in an image we create multi-size images, that are able to continuously change in real time to fit a given size. CR Categories: I.3.0 [Computing Methodologies ]: Computer Graphics—General; I.4.10 [Computing Methodologies ]: Image Processing And Computer Vision —Image Representation Keywords: Image resizing, Image retargeting, Image seams, Content-aware image manipulation, Display devices 1 Introduction The diversity and versatility of display devices today imposes new demands on digital media. For instance, designers must create dif- ferent alternatives for web-content and design different layouts for different devices. Moreover, HTML, as well as other standards, can support dynamic changes of page layout and text. Nevertheless, up to date, images , although being one of the key elements in digital media, typically remain rigid in size and cannot deform to fit differ- ent layouts automatically. Other cases in which the size, or aspect ratio of an image must change, are to fit into different displays such as cell phones or PDAs, or to print on a given paper size or resolu- tion.
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