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Exam1V1 - Brower 2007 exam1 If you have any questions be...

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Brower 2007 exam1 If you have any questions, be sure to ask - the worst that happens is that we say we can’t answer that. READ THE QUESTION CAREFULLY. Anything in parentheses ( ) is there to help you understand the question; it is not what is being tested. F1. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have nuclei and ER (endoplasmic reticulum), but prokaryotes have NO mitochondria or chloroplasts. T2. Evidence for the symbiotic origin of mitochondria includes the fact that the mitochondrial ribosomes are more similar to their bacterial counterparts than they are similar to those in the cytoplasm just outside of the mitochondria. F3. A solution that is at pH 7 has two times (2X) the concentration of hydrogen ions (protons) as does a solution at pH 6. T4. Hydrogen bonds are NOT covalent bonds, because no electrons are shared between the hydrogen nucleus and the other nucleus (often oxygen or nitrogen) that is part of the bond. T5. The making and breaking of covalent bonds in macromolecules typically is associated with a high activation energy, and therefore does not easily occur in the absence of an enzyme. T6. The primary goal of the light reactions of photosynthesis is to make high energy compounds that can then be used (in the dark reactions) to reduce CO2 to glucose. T7. Many enzymes contain cofactors which are not amino acids, but are essential for the enzymatic activity. F8. Alpha helices of proteins are held together primarily by the hydrophobic effect (hydrophobic interactions), which attempts to bury hydrophobic side chains (R groups) of the amino acids into the interior of the protein. T9. If you denature a protein (by boiling in water, for example), you will break all the bonds except the covalent ones. Thus, only the primary structure (and disulfides) will remain intact.
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