BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI 1915.doc - RESTRICTED BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI(1915 1 Anatolia has for centuries possessed an enormous strategic importance as a result

BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI 1915.doc - RESTRICTED BATTLE OF...

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RESTRICTED BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI (1915) 1. Anatolia has for centuries possessed an enormous strategic importance as a result of the policies adapted by powers in their attempt to reach the high seas and warmer climates and other powers who wanted to establish sovereignty over the Middle East, the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean by means of a geo-political belt stretching from the Baltic throughout the Bosphorus to the Persian Gulf. THE SITUATION DIRING WORLD WAR ONE. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century the political climate in Europe was extremely tense. The great powers of Europe in order to gain sovereignty in both the geo-political and economic spheres had split Europe into two blocs; Germano-Latin and Anglo-French. Thus the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy and the Triple Entente between Britain, France and Russia were founded. 3. When the outbreak of the 1st World War seemed imminent, the Ottoman Empire attempted to ally herself with the Entente under the conditions that her borders were guaranteed and that the economic capitulations were abolished. Upon receiving a negative response, the Empire found herself obliged to join the Triple Alliance and signed the treaty of 2nd August 1914. The Ottoman Empire was not yet prepared for war though it decided to keep the treaty secret. 4. The German warships Goben and Breslau, then in the Mediterranean were allowed to pass through the Dardanelles on the 10th August. The Ottoman flag was raised and it was announced that they had been purchased from Germany. The commander of 9 RESTRICTED
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RESTRICTED the ships, Admiral Souchon was appointed to the Naval Command . The Entente declared war on the Empire as a result of the naval operation: known as the "Black Sea incident" carried out by the Turkish Navy in the Black Sea. The Ottoman Government actively entered the war after this declaration, on 11 November 1914. The Allied fleet chasing the German warships blockaded the Dardanelles ,began bombarding the Turkish batteries at the entrance to the Straits on 3rd November 1914continued intermittently until 12th 1915. NAVAL BATTLE 5. On 18th March 1915, at the beginning of the Dardanelles campaign, the commander of the Allied fleet, Admiral de Robeck divided the fleet into three sections. The first section entered the straits at 10.30 am. and penetrated as far as the row of mines. The Intepe batteries started a heavy fire. The Intepe, Erenkoy and Tengertepe batteries intensified their fire and a fierce bombardment continued for three hours. In the afternoon Admiral de Robeck withdrew his ships in the third section and threw forward six warships waiting in the rear. During the withdrawal, one of the ships hit a mine and sunk after a terrible explosion. The naval battle continued in all its intensity for seven hours. In the face of the dogged resistance of the Turkish Straits Defense, Admiral de Robeck decided that nothing further could be done that day. During this operation three ships from the Allied Fleet had been sunk and three badly damaged. It was under these
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