COMECON - “ The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance” was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world made after NATO SPUTNIK - Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957, orbiting for three weeks before its batteries died, then silently for two more months before falling back into the atmosphere. SAKHAROV - Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights. He became renowned as the designer of the Soviet Union's RDS- 37, a codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. SUKARNO - Sukarno was the first President of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967. Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands NASSER - Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS - The Cuban Missile Crisis, was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated by the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The Soviet Union puts missiles in Cuba to protect them from US invasion, but the US already had missiles in turkey. ADJUSTMENT - KHRUSHCHEV - Nikita Khrushchev was a Soviet who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He publicized Moscow’s appeal for a new policy of “peaceful coexistence” PAN-AFRICANISM - the principle or advocacy of the political union of all the indigenous inhabitants of Africa. A basic element was the conviction that there was a distinctive “african personality” that owed nothing to western made materialism ATLANTIC CHARTER - The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 August 1941 which defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. The leaders of the United Kingdom and the United States drafted the work and all the Allies of World War II later confirmed it. MARSHALL PLAN - The Marshall Plan was an American initiative passed in 1948 to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. NATO - The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949 BAY OF PIGS - The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military invasion of Cuba by Cuban refugees. It was initiated by Eisenhower and CIA, but conducted under Kennedy, that failed due to lack of air support.