KIRANDEEP SWAN - Gilded_AgeC15_17_20.pdf - APUSH 1868-1890\u2019s GILDED AGE POLITICS REVIEWED American Pageant(Kennedy)Chapter 23 American

KIRANDEEP SWAN - Gilded_AgeC15_17_20.pdf - APUSH...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/7/15 APUSH 1868-1890’s GILDED AGE POLITICS REVIEWED! American Pageant (Kennedy)Chapter 23 American History (Brinkley) Chapters 15, 17, 19 America’s History (Henretta) Chapters 15, 17, 20 Kirandeep Swan Mr. Cooper 11/21/19 • Credit Mobilier Scandal was a scandal that formed when a group of union pacific railroad insiders formed the credit mibilier construction company and then hired themselves to build the railroad with inflated wages. they President Grant (1868-1876) •  Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant wins the Presidency for the Republican party in 1868 –  Temporary social and political revolution- black voters vote for Republican candidates •  Corruption during the Grant administration –  Credit Mobilier affair: VP & members of Congress involved in RR stock scandal –  Whiskey Ring: 1875-Private Secretary of Grant helped steal 3 million from the fed govt in a tax corruption scheme. –  “Grantism”- term used to describe corruption in politics bribed several congressmen and the vide president to keep the scandal from going public. • Whiskey Rin was in the United States, the Whiskey Ring was a scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors. Uncovered in Grant's Administration. • Grantism was a term coined by senator Charles Sumner in 1872 during a Presidential election year. The term given to describe Grant's ways of handling things. Accused Grant of political patronage, nepotism, and being an autocrat in general: political corruption.Liberal Republicans opposed it. In a hope to prevent Grant's reelection, they nominated their own candidate: Horace Greeley hoping that the alliance with the Liberals would enable them to defeat Grant. Grant emerged victorious, though. The Ultimate Symbol of Gilded Age Political Corruption: Boss Tweed Local Poli)cal corrup)on: Tammany Hall (Democra)c party poli,cal machine): –  “Boss” Tweed used bribery, gra>, and fraudulent elec)ons to steal over $200 million from NY taxpayers •  Thomas Nast would expose this corrup)on to the masses • Tammany Hall was the New York political org. , two centuries, formed in 1789 in opposition to Feds. , mirrored local DEM. party, willingness to help city's poor and immigrant pop. , known for corruption with leaders such as Boss Tweed, waned during tenure of Mayor Guardia, ended when John V. Lindsay took office. • Tweed Ring was a corrupt New York City political machine led by "Boss" Tweed, that used tactics such as bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections; in 1871, the New York Times published evidence of Tweed's corruption and illegal activities, leading to his arrest and conviction. • Thomas Nast was a newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed. 1 12/7/15 • The Panic of 1873 was a result of capitalist economic expansion in which promoters had exceeded the markets ability to support them. This caused banks to give out too many loans that would not be paid back, and a PANIC OF 1873 •  Severe economic collapse further distracts the nation from enforcing Reconstruction •  Causes: 1) Overproduction in industries such as factories, railroad, and mining. 2) Over speculation by bankers: too much money loaned out •  Hard times inflicted the worst effects on debtors •  Debtors advocate for relaxation of tight money policies –  Debate between “hard currency” vs. “greenbacks” –  Agrarian and debtor groups want”cheap money” •  want greenbacks issued worldwide economic panic. !5,000 American businesses went bankrupt. Debtors wanted greenbacks (easy to pay back) while creditors demanded hard money (worth more). • Hard/Sound Money was the metallic or specie dollar which is known as hard money. It was extremely important during the late 1860's and early 1870's, especially during the Panic of 1873. It was in opposition with "greenbacks" or "folding money." The issuing of the "greenbacks" was overdone and the value depreciated causing inflation and the Panic of 1873. "Hard-money" advocates looked for the complete disappearance of the "folding money." • "cheap money" supporters (afflicted agrarian and debtor groups) clamored for a reissuance of greenbacks, reasoning that more money meant cheaper money and rising prices and easier to pay debts. • The Election of 1876 was when Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil Election of 1876 •  Republican Rutherford Hayes vs. Democrat Samuel Tilden •  Political controversy as results in 3 southern states were contested Compromise of 1877 •  South/Democrats would recognize Hayes as President •  Hayes would pull federal troops out of the South and end Reconstruction •  Hayes to provide south political positions (patronage) and federal aid for a transcontinental RR for the south War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected. • The Compromise of 1877 was when they withdrew federal soldiers from their remaining position in the South, enacted federal legislation that would spur industrialization in the South, appointed Democrats to patronage positions in the south, and appointed a Democrat to the president's cabinet. • Rutherford B. Hayes was a Republican governor from Ohio. He had spent majority of his term as governor reforming the government and politics within Ohio. He was elected president in 1876 by the Compromise of 1877. He was known as the "caretaker" president because he just took care of the country. The Court Undermines Reconstruction •  Civil Rights Act of 1875: Protected Rights –  made it a crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public places –  Prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection •  Civil Rights Cases of 1883: Court striking down! –  Supreme Court said 14th amendment only protected against government violations of civil rights •  Individuals can discriminate all they want –  Overturns the Civil Rights Act of 1875 •  Jim Crow laws spread throughout the south •  Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) –  Racial segregation was constitutional if equal facilities were made available to each race (“separate but equal”) • The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was when this act guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations" (i.e. inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement). • The Civil Rights Cases of 1883 was a name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodations, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private discrimination and not state discrimination. • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) was the Supreme Court case about Jim Crow railroad cars in Louisiana; the Court decided by 7 to 1 that legislation could not overcome racial attitudes, and that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites. 2 12/7/15 • The new south ideology referred to the south after reconstruction proponents of the new south supported advances in agriculture and industrialization, ties with modern national economy and the growth of cities. •  Idea of “New South” promoted: south would rebuild, industrialize, and develop their economy. •  However, Agrarian sharecropping and tenant farming continued to dominant the region •  Life for African Americans in the Post Reconstruction South continued to be filled with many challenges. • Proponents of the new south,in 1880 Henry Grady made the new south popular in speeches and writings . He promoted industrialization railroad expansion and the break up of large plots of planter land. He encouraged northern investment and southern industries but still believed that whites were superior to blacks. • After the Civil War, sharecropping and tenant farming took the place of slavery and the plantation system in the South.Sharecropping and tenant farming were systems in which white landlords (often former plantation slave owners) entered into contracts with impoverished farm laborers to work their lands. Those who worked the fields shared a portion of the crop yield with the landlord as payment for renting the land. • Southern Redeemers supported states and white supremacy. Used Jim Crow 1.) Literacy Test 2.) Poll Taxes 3.) Property Requirements 4.) Grandfather Clauses: Exempted from electoral requirements anyone who had voted in 1860 laws, poll taxes, literacy tests, and property qualifications to regain control of the south. Democrats in power in southern states after reconstruction: supported by business community and white supremacists. • Southern states adopted the grandfather clauses which allowed a man to vote only if his grandfather had cast ballots in elections before Reconstruction. These clauses consisted of poll taxes and literacy tests that were primaries for whites only. • Poll Tax was a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote. Literacy test was a test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote. • "Redeemer Democrats" was a self-imposed term used by nineteenthcentury southern Democrats fond of talking about "redeeming" their states from the alleged "misrule and corruption" wrought by Republican carpetbaggers, scalawags, and their black allies who assumed control as Congressional Reconstruction began in 1867-68. The Ku Klux Klan and similar domestic terrorist organizations played an important role in helping White Democrats (“Redeemers”) reassumed political power in the South the Democrats reach their goal, which was done at different times between 1869 and 1877 in various southern states. Many Redeemer Democrats, or Redeemers, such as Zebulon B. Vance of North Carolina and Wade Hampton of South Carolina, had been Whigs before the Civil War. During Reconstruction , Democrats (temporarily also called "Conservatives") sought to bring as many voters as possible into "the white man's party." By the 1890s the Redeemers lost control of the southern Democratic Party, and more rabid racists, intent on disfranchising black voters, gained control of the party and of the governments of southern states. 3 12/7/15 • In 1882, the U.S. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, a law that would simultaneously halt Chinese immigration to the United States and bar this group from becoming citizens. However, to truly understand this policy, you Chinese Immigration have to look further back in history. •  Large increase in Asian immigration (especially from China) •  Important during the various mining booms and building of railroad •  Spike in nativism toward Asian immigrants in the west • Chinese immigrants came to the United States in significant numbers during •  Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: prohibited further immigration of Chinese laborers • The Chinese laborers were frequently scapegoated during economic downturns –  1st time immigration restrictions on basis of race and nationality the California Gold Rush of 1848-1855. These immigrants were important laborers, building the infrastructure that made the increase in Western migration possible, including the First Continental Railroad. – and during the period of westward expansion (where monied men speculated wildly and the government had few, if any, regulations on their behavior), economic downturns were common – and white workers made their distaste for the Chinese known. • Grant's successor was Rutherford B. Hayes who had tremendous integrity, but his Presidency was weakened by the means of his election. After the electoral votes were counted, his opponent, Samuel Tilden , already claimed a majority of Gilded Age Presidents the popular vote and needed just one electoral vote to win. Hayes needed twenty. Ø 1876-1880: Rutherford B. Hayes (R) While he was able to claim the White House, many considered his election a Ø 1880-1884: James Garfield (R) killed fraud, and his power to rule was diminished. §  VP Chester A. Arthur takes over Ø 1884-1888: Grover Cleveland (D) Ø 1888-1892: Benjamin Harris (R) Ø 1892-1896: Grover Cleveland (D) Ø 1896-1900: William McKinley (R) • James Garfield succeeded Hayes to the Presidency. After only four months, his life was cut short by an assassin's bullet. • Vice-President Chester Arthur became the next leader. Although his political history was largely composed of appointments of friends, the tragedy that befell his predecessor led him to believe that the system had gone bad. He signed into law the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which opened many jobs to competitive exam rather than political connections. The Republican Party rewarded him by refusing his nomination for the Presidency in 1884. • Corruption in government—especially as it related to big business—energized the public to demand increased. Popular control and reform of local, state, and “Gilded Age politics were intimately tied to big business and focused nationally on economic issues such as tariffs and currency policy.” national governments, ranging from minor changes to major overhauls of the Both political parties during the Gilded Age ignored the political and social consequences of industrialization well as local and national policies of discrimination and segregation. Examples: LAISSEZ FAIRE capitalist system. Examples: referendum, socialism, Interstate Commerce Act, etc. Increasingly prominent racist and nativist theories, along with Supreme Court decisions such as Plessy v. Ferguson, were used to justify violence, as American Protective Association, Chinese Exclusion Act, etc. New cultural and intellectual movements both buttressed and challenged the social order of the Gilded Age. • Politics in the Gilded Age were characterized by scandal and corruption, but voter turnout reached an all-time high. The Republican Party supported business and industry with a protective tariff and hard money policies. The Democratic Party opposed the tariff and eventually adopted the free silver platform. • The People's (Populist) Party emerged in the 1890s to champion the interests of farmers. The party endorsed the coinage of silver to improve the financial situation of debtors. 4 12/7/15 • At the heart of each president’s administration was the protection of the spoils system, that is, the power of the president to practice widespread political patronage. Patronage, in this case, took the form of the president naming his Key Issues: Currency, Civil Service Reform & Tariffs •  Patronage was used by both political parties –  Civil Service jobs given to supporters (“to the victor belong the spoils”) –  Calls for Civil Service Reform •  Half-Breeds: advocated civil service reform (James Blaine) •  Stalwarts: supporters of patronage (Roscoe Conkling) •  By the 1880’s the U.S. Treasury had a huge surplus from tariffs friends and supporters to various political posts. Given the close calls in presidential elections during the era, the maintenance of political machinery and repaying favors with patronage was important to all presidents, regardless of party affiliation. • The Stalwarts, the conservative faction, saw themselves as "stalwart" in opposition to Hayes' efforts to reconcile with the South. They opposed all forms of civil service reform, preferring to keep in place the existing patronage system. Among their numbers were many Radical Republicans, Union war veterans and most of the Republican political bosses. • The Half-Breeds, a term of disparagement favored by the Stalwarts, was applied to the moderately liberal faction of the Republican Party. In the minds of the Stalwarts. Gilded Age Presidential Politics Ø  1876-1880: Rutherford B. Hayes (R) •  Becomes President following Compromise of 1877 •  Sends federal troops to break up Great Railroad strike Ø  1880-1884: James Garfield •  Garfield is assassinated •  Chester A. Arthur throws support behind the Pendleton Act (1883) civil service reform Ø  1884-1888: Grover Cleveland (D) •  Strong advocate of laissez faire- “Though the people support the government,” “the government should not support the people” •  Signed into law Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Ø  1888-1892: Benjamin Harrison (R) •  advocated for keeping the tariff high. •  Billion-dollar Congress- McKinley Tariff, Civil War pensions Ø  1892-1896: Grover Cleveland (D) • The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was a group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. Railroad roadhouse were torched. President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in troops to stop the strike. 100 people died in the strike. • The Pendleton Act, however, was created to put an end to what was turning out to be a system of corruption. Established in 1883, this federal law overhauled how federal civil employees would gain access to their jobs, making it a requirement for potential government employees to take part in a competitive application process for potential employment. • The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates. Subscribe to Productions 5 ...
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