Running head: DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES1Disorders of the Veins and ArteriesWalden UniversityAdvanced PathophysiologyNURS 6501September 20, 2019
DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES2Disorders of the Veins and ArteriesTo treat patients properly nurse practitioners must have the skill sets to evaluate, assess, and diagnose. The human body is made up a large network over veins and arteries, and can be effected by blood clots and poor circulation. Venous system failure can result in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (Hammer & McPhee, 2019). Advance practitioners have to have knowledge concerning venous physiology and anatomy. Since the most common veins affected are those in the lower extremities, nurse practitioners to understand causative pathology of both CVI and DVT and the anatomy and physiology of lower extremities in order to diagnose either disease. The purpose of the is paper is to describe CVIs and DVTs, explain their similarities and differences, and how patient factors may influence the pathophysiology of the disease. Along with the paper a mind map will be attached for both CVI and DVT.Pathophysiology of Chronic Venous Insufficiency Ineffective functioning in the lower extremity veins and venous walls is caused from CVI, blood is leaking backwards due to the weak squeezing of the valves. The venous system is made up of many vessels and there are more veins in the system than there are arteries. Veins are thin and large in diameter, they have valves placed throughout that allow blood to travel in one direction (Huether & McCance, 2017). There are bicuspid valves located in deep and superficial veins that prevent blood from refluxing back towards the feet in the standing and upright position, these valves allow the veins to open and close approximately every 20 mins to allow blood movement (Davis, 2019).Some factors that cause CVI are pregnancy, gender, genetics, prolonged standing, and trauma. Veins and valves become weakened and limit blood access back toward the heart causing
DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES3blood pressure within the veins to stay elevated for an extended time. The lack of venous return cause hypertension and venous stasis (Davis, 2019). The venous system is responsible for carrying oxygenated blood to all major organs. Oxygen is transported to all vital organs through the venous system. Ulceration and fibrosclerotic remodeling are the result of tissue hypoxia. Hypoxia and the buildup of white blood cells cause the tissues to become inflamed (Huether & McCance, 2017). Circulation is jeopardized by the inflammation response, therefore, the metabolic needs of oxygen, nutrition, and the elimination of waste is not met (Huether & McCance, 2017). CVI signs and symptoms include edema of the lower extremities extending to
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