test 2 study guide

test 2 study guide - Chapter 3 Policy Formation Problems...

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Chapter 3: Policy Formation – Problems, Agendas, and Formulation Introduction The federal paperwork reduction process is an example of policy formation o Paperwork perceived as a public problem o Congress responded with Federal Reports Act o Paperwork put on the policy agenda o Paperwork Reduction Act signed into law – renewed in later years Policy formation : the total process of creating, adopting and implementing a policy Policy formulation : the crafting of alternatives or options for dealing w/a problem Legislature is the primary institutional force Defining problems, setting agendas, and formulating proposals are functional  categories – they are frequently interrelated and smudged together Policy Problems Why are some problems acted on and others neglected?  Why are problems defined  in one way and not another? o Public problems affect a substantial amount of people, have broad effects,  including consequences for persons not directly involved (difficult to solve by  individual action) Policy Problem : a condition or situation that produces needs or dissatisfaction among  people, who then desire govt. action o Ex: Problem is H5N1 Virus A problem is only a problem if something can be done about it” o Hurricanes and other natural disasters are not likely to become public  problems because govt. can do nothing to prevent them  - but the preparation  before such natural disasters to react to the destruction and after-math do  become public problems Definitions change over time as values and conditions change o Problems are defined NOT only by their objective dimensions but also by  their social constructs (ex: a wealthy person may not worry about  unemployment rates rising, whereas an industrial worker may perceive  increasing joblessness as a major threat to their well-being) Difference between a condition (meth in Oregon) and a problem.  A condition  becomes a problem when: 1. there is a criterion or standard to address it (tipping point) 2. conditions are unacceptable
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3. appropriate for govt. to handle the issue (there is a solution connected to it) Causation:  What causes a problem is important to determine, otherwise remedies  can be misguided.  To deal effectively with a problem one must treat its causes  rather than its symptoms.   Tractability : How difficult will the problem be to fix?  o tangible problems – something you can fix such as scarce jobs, poorly  managed public-housing projects, or an overburdened criminal-justice  system, can be eased by improving the incentives and resources available to  people and agencies o
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