\u9053\u5fb7\u672c\u8d28\u8457\u4f5c\uff08ethicstheessentialwritings\uff09 - CONTENTS INTRODUCTION by Gordon Marino PART I FROM ix PLATO TO KIERKEGAARD 1 PLATO Euihyphro

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION by Gordon Marino ix PART I: FROM PLATO TO KIERKEGAARD 1. PLATO Euihyphro, Crito, and The Republic: Book II 3 2. ARISTOTLE Nicomachean Ethics 43 5. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS Summa Theologica: Question XCIV 119 Part II. Of Commonwealth I 34 7. DAVID HUME An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals 149 8. IMMANUEL KANT Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals 188 9. JOHN STUART MILL Utilitarianism 225 10. ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER Parerga and Paralipomena 2 56 11. FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE On the Genealogy of Morality 274 12. SOREN KIERKEGAARD The Sickness Unto Death: Part II 299 PART II: THE MODERNS 1 3. RUTH BENEDICT Anthropology and the Abnormal 309 14. MARY MIDGLEY Trying Out One's New Sword 321 15. JKAN-PAUL SARTRE Existentialism and Human Emotion 328 16. PHILIP HALLIE From Cruelty to Goodness 333 3. EPICTETUS The Enchiridion 85 4. ST. AUGUSTINK City of God; Book XIX 107 6. THOMAS HOBBES Leviathan: Part I. Of Man,
viii • Contents 17. ROBERT COLES The Disparity Between Intellect and Character 3 50 18. Dr. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. Letter from a Birmingham Jail 356 19. J OHN RAWLS A Theory of Justice 378 20. ALASDAIB MACINTYRE After Virtue 396 21. NEL NODDINGS Caring A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education 424 2 2. THOMAS NAGEL Mortal Questions 445 23. SUSAN WOLF Moral Saints 462 24. ALDO LEOPOLD A Sand County Almanac: The Land Ethic 486 25. PETER SINGER Rich and Poor 506 26. TOM REGAN The Case for Animal Rights 530 27. MICHAEL WALZER Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands 545 28. JUDITII JARVIS THOMSON A Defense of Abortion DON MARQUIS Why Abortion Is Immoral 567 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 607 PERMISSION CREDITS 609
I N T R O D U C T I O N Gordon Marino The existentialists had one thing right. To live is to abide within the chilly coordinates of constant choice, choices about what to value, about how to live our lives, about ethics. A few years back, I was at the bedside of a friend dying a slow, painful death. There was no hope of a recovery and she was haunted by the concern that she would be gobbling up all of her children's resources by continuing in her agonizing half-life. Worse yet, she feared that by the time the flames of pain had finished with her, all of her good memories and her repository of loving feelings would be cinder. "What," she once said with a sigh, "could be more humiliat- ing, what could be worse than not caring anymore about anything except being free of pain?" One night, she calmly asked me to hand her a bottle of sleeping pills. I thought for a long moment: If her end was going to be as bad as she imagined it, why not? But it felt too much like playing God, and I demurred. On my way to a party, I am accosted by an unkempt man who insists that he needs taxi fare to take his feverish baby to the emergency room. Maybe 1 should trust him and help him out, but then again, would I only be lending a hand to make myself feel better? But wait—what am I? Some kind of narcissist? What difference do my motives make to a potentially desperate individual?
x • Introduction My mother passed away a few years ago. She had a dear aid friend whom I started visiting. A bright, interesting, and kind nonagenarian, she very

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