CONTENTS INTRODUCTIONby Gordon Marino ix PART I: FROM PLATO TO KIERKEGAARD 1.PLATOEuihyphro, Crito, and The Republic: Book II 3 2. ARISTOTLENicomachean Ethics43 5. ST. THOMAS AQUINASSumma Theologica: Question XCIV119 Part II. Of Commonwealth I 34 7. DAVID HUMEAn Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals149 8. IMMANUEL KANTFundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals 188 9. JOHN STUART MILLUtilitarianism 225 10. ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUERParerga and Paralipomena2 56 11. FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHEOn the Genealogy of Morality274 12. SOREN KIERKEGAARDThe Sickness Unto Death: Part II 299 PART II: THE MODERNS 1 3. RUTH BENEDICTAnthropology and the Abnormal309 14. MARY MIDGLEYTrying Out One's New Sword321 15. JKAN-PAUL SARTREExistentialism and Human Emotion328 16. PHILIP HALLIEFrom Cruelty to Goodness333 3. EPICTETUSThe Enchiridion85 4. ST. AUGUSTINKCity of God; Book XIX 107 6. THOMAS HOBBESLeviathan: Part I. Of Man,
viii • Contents 17. ROBERT COLESThe Disparity Between Intellect and Character3 50 18.Dr.MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.Letter from a Birmingham Jail356 19. J OHN RAWLS A Theory of Justice 378 20. ALASDAIB MACINTYREAfter Virtue396 21. NEL NODDINGSCaring A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education 424 2 2. THOMAS NAGELMortal Questions445 23. SUSAN WOLFMoral Saints462 24. ALDO LEOPOLDA Sand County Almanac: The Land Ethic486 25. PETER SINGERRich and Poor506 26. TOM REGANThe Case for Animal Rights530 27. MICHAEL WALZERPolitical Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands545 28. JUDITII JARVIS THOMSONA Defense of Abortion DON MARQUISWhy Abortion Is Immoral567 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 607 PERMISSION CREDITS 609
I N T R O D U C T I O N Gordon Marino The existentialists had one thing right. To live is to abide within the chilly coordinates of constant choice, choices about what to value, about how to live our lives, about ethics. A few years back, I was at the bedside of a friend dying a slow, painful death. There was no hope of a recovery and she was haunted by the concern that she would be gobbling up all of her children's resources by continuing in her agonizing half-life. Worse yet, she feared that by the time the flames of pain had finished with her, all of her good memories and her repository of loving feelings would be cinder. "What," she once said with a sigh, "could be more humiliat-ing, what could be worse than not caring anymore about anything except being free of pain?" One night, she calmly asked me to hand her a bottle of sleeping pills. I thought for a long moment: If her end was going to be as bad as she imagined it, why not? But it felt too much like playing God, and I demurred. On my way to a party, I am accosted by an unkempt man who insists that he needs taxi fare to take his feverish baby to the emergency room. Maybe 1 should trust him and help him out, but then again, would I only be lending a hand to make myself feel better? But wait—what am I? Some kind of narcissist? What difference do my motives make to a potentially desperate individual?
x • Introduction My mother passed away a few years ago. She had a dear aid friend whom I started visiting. A bright, interesting, and kind nonagenarian, she very