The Chemical Level of Organization.doc - Chemical Level of...

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Chemical Level of OrganizationChemistry of the CellWhy study chemistry in Anatomy and PhysiologyoBody functions depend on cellular functionsoCellular functions result from chemical changesoBiochemistry helps to explain physiological processes and develop newdrugs and methods for treating diseasesChemistry is the “study of matter”Matter– anything that takes up space and has massoThree statesSolidLiquidGaskMass-amount of matterWeight– force of gravityMass and energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but one can be convertedinto the other.Energy– capacity to do workoPotentialoKineticoRadiantoElectricaloHeatoChemicaloMechanicalPage 1 of 22
Energy from conversionsElementsA basic chemical substance composed of atoms.It cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary reactionsBulk elements required in large amountsTrace elements required in small amounts120 in nature26 in the bodyPage 2 of 22
Chemical symbolsLetter abbreviations used to designate the individual elementsO, C, H, Nmake up 96%Ca & P98.5%O(Oxygen)– cellular respiration, water, most important abundantelement in the earth’s atmosphere and crustC(Carbon)– organic, propensity to form covalent bonds with itself andother moleculesH(Hydrogen)– water, foodsN(Nitrogen)– proteins, DNA, RNACa(Calcium)– hardness of bones and teeth, blood clotting, movement ofstructures inside cells, Release of hormones, contraction of muscle.P(Phosphorus)– proteins, nucleic acids, ATP, normal blood and toothstructureK(Potassium)– most abundant cation inside cells, conduction of nerve andmuscle impulses, Muscle contraction.S(Sulfur)– vitamins, proteinsNa(Sodium)– most plentiful cation outside cells, water balance,conduction of nerve and muscle impulse, muscle contraction.Cl(Chlorine)– most plentiful anion in extra cellular fluids, water balanceMg(Magnesium)– component of boneI(Iodine)– thyroid hormoneFe(Iron)– hemoglobin, ATPPage 3 of 22
AtomSmallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of thatelementProtonmass = 1positive chargeNeutronmass = 1no chargeElectronmass = 0negative chargeValence electrons - determine the chemical properties of an element found inoutermost energy level, or electron cloudWhether an atom will react with another atom will be determined by the numberof electrons in the outermost energy levelPage 4 of 22
Atomic mass= number of protons and neutronsAtomic number= number of protonsIsotopesSame but different atomic weight, increase in number of neutronsRadioisotopes – unstable – “decay” Co, Ur, P, O2, I (first discovered), FeElectron configurationUse valence electronsKLM1232n22818Valence electrons– outermost shellElement- basic substanceIsotopes– radioactive energy – released when the nucleus of an atom breaks apart.Atoms with same number of Protons but different number of neutrons.Examples: Iodine, Thallium, Gallium, CobaltAlphaoparticles from atomic nucleio

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