commonlit_the-scramble-for-africa_student - Name Class The Scramble for Africa By Mike Kubic 2016 Mike Kubic is a former correspondent of Newsweek

commonlit_the-scramble-for-africa_student - Name Class...

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Name:Class:"The Rhodes Colossus Striding from Cape Town to Cairo"byEdward Linley Sambourne is in the public domain.The Scramble for AfricaBy Mike Kubic2016Mike Kubic is a former correspondent ofNewsweekmagazine. Here he writes about African imperialism, orthe act of creating an empire composed of foreign territories and colonies. As you read, identify the causesand effects of African imperialism during the 19th and 20th centuries.In the 19th century, Western Europe madeenormous contributions to the quality of ourlives. It gave us, for example, the rich canvas ofAlexandre Dumas’ and Victor Hugo’s novels; thegraceful architecture of the Paris Opera and theHouses of the British Parliament; theenchantment of Claude Monet’s paintings and ofLudwig van Beethoven’s music – all immortalachievements that have been as important forour enjoyment and culture as was the era’sIndustrial Revolution for our economic well-beingand progress.1Unfortunately, that’s not all that Britain, France,Germany and other Europeans accomplishedduring the 1800s. They also pounced like vultureson a long-ignored continent, and collectivelywrote one of the darkest chapters on man’sinhumanity toward man.Their violent assault is known as “The Scramblefor Africa” and, most unusually, historians agreethat its primary author was one King Leopold II ofBelgium.2Although the ruler of a small nation, King Leopold had deep pockets and an obsessive desire to own anempire. For years, he tried to buy large tracts of land in Latin America and Asia, without success. But in1876 he read in theLondon Timesthat a British explorer had crossed the uncharted interior of Africaand found it “a magnificent and healthy country of unspeakable richness… [a land where] gold, copper,iron, and silver…are abundant.”[1]1.Alexandre Dumas was a French writer known for The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte Christo while VictorHugo was another French writer known for Les Misérables and The Hunchback of Notre Dame; Eduard Monet was amaster of French impressionist painting; and Ludwig van Beethoven was an Austrian composer and pianist fromVienna. The Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid advancement in manufacturing and technology.2.King Leopold II was the second king of Belgium and ruled from 1865 to 1909.1
Losing no time, the same year Leopold invited an odd group of 37 explorers, politicians,photographers, geographers, philanthropists, missionaries and businessmen from Britain, France,Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Russia to Brussel’s Royal Palace for a three-day conference. Heproposed to the gathering to conduct “a crusade3worthy of this age of progress,” namely, “[t]o open tocivilization the only part of our globe which it has not yet penetrated, [and] to pierce the darkness inwhich entire populations are enveloped.”4Lavishly dined and wined, his guests readily voted to create an “International African Association” withLeopold as its president. A shrewd5operator, he used the title to get a go-ahead of European (and the

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