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Chapter 22 Notes APUSH.docx - APUSH Notes Chapter 22: The...

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APUSH NotesChapter 22: The Ordeal of ReconstructionMain Ideas1. Freedmen-Freedmen, or former slaves released from slavery, had manystruggles following the Civil War. Emancipation was not entirelyeffective, taking effect at varying levels in different parts of theSouth. Many blacks were liberated and then re-enslaved, asplanters resisted emancipation by both violent and legalisticmeans. All masters were eventually forced to recognize theirslaves’ permanent freedom, and tens of thousands ofemancipated blacks took to the roads to search for long-lostspouses and family members. The church became the center ofblack community life, and they soon gave rise to otherbenevolent, fraternal, and mutual aid societies. Many blackswere also finally able to acquire an education.2.Freedmen’s Bureau-To cope with the problem that freedmen were generallyunskilled, unlettered, poor, and propertyless, with limitedknowledge of how to survive as free people, Congress createdthe Freedmen’s Bureau on March 3, 1865. It was supposedlyintended to be a primitive welfare agency, providing food,clothing, medical care, and education to both freedmen andwhite refugees. The bureau taught about two hundred thousandblacks how to read. However, the bureau’s accomplishmentswere meager, and even mischievous. It was authorized to settleformer slaves on forty-acre tracts confiscated from theConfederates, but little land was actually given to blacks. Localadministrators often collaborated with planters to expel blacksout of town and deceiving them into signing labor contracts towork for their former masters.3.Andrew Johnson-When Andrew Johnson first became active in politics in
Tennessee, he shone as an impassioned champion of the poorwhites against the planter aristocrats. Elected to Congress, heattracted plenty of positive attention from the North when herefused to secede with his own state. Johnson was thrust intothe vice presidency when Lincoln’s Union party in 1864 neededto attract support from the War Democrats, and DemocraticJohnson seemed to be the ideal man for the position. He wassteadfastly devoted to states’ rights and the Constitution.However, when Johnson unexpectedly became presidentwithout ever having been elected, he was not at home in theRepublican White House, and he was known to be hot-headedand stubborn.4.10% Plan-Abraham Lincoln, in believing that the Southern states hadnever legally withdrawn from the Union, proclaimed his “10percent” Reconstruction plan. This decreed that a state couldbe reintegrated into the Union when at least ten percent of itsvoters in the election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance tothe United States and pledged to abide by emancipation, andthen a formal state government would be erected, and Lincolnwould finally recognize the purified regime.

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Term
Fall
Professor
yerger
Tags
Abraham Lincoln, Reconstruction, Reconstruction era of the United States

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