Gray Matter corresponds to cell bodies of neurons and glial cells
white matter corresponds to tracts traversing the brain and spinal
cord and connecting different regions.
Cortical layers- neurons “belong” to specific layers and send their
processes to other specific layers, different regions of the cortex have
different layering patterns, precise wiring within and between
Cell body –cytoplasm-includes everything inside the various
Cytosol, the internal fluid of the cell, is gel-like, mostly
water with a high concentration of protein. Highly organized at the
Nucleus-location of genetic material, the
chromosomes genes are transcribed in the nucleus to RNA, the RNA
is processed and exits the nucleus as mRNA.
free or attached to the surface of endoplasmic reticulum, hence rough
ER. Responsible for translating mRNA into protein, this may be
modified and sorted in the Golgi.
Mitochondria-powerhouse of the
cell responsible for generating ATP.
various filaments. Provides structural support and a “highway” for
movement of organelles and protein. Dynamically regulated.
Axon-typically a long cylindrical process, specialized for
long-distance transfer of information two specialized regions: axon
hillock and axon terminal. Features of synapse, pre- and post-
synaptic regions, electrical to chemical to electrical signaling, huge
diversity of transmitters and receptors, site of action of many drugs.
The dendrites-Greek for tree, spines as sites of synapses,
dynamic structures, effect of complex environments on spine shape
Ways neurons are studied shape-structure-function
relationships, molecular signature, movement, functional studies,
role in circuits and contribution to behavior, genetics, and pathology
as ways of manipulating all of the above.
Electrical insulation for an axon is made up of a fatty (lipid)
substance know as
Left half of visual field is mapped onto half of each retina
When Na+ ions are moving through ion changes in the neuron’s
membrane the membrane potential of the neuron is changing
Retinotopic organization refers to the point-to-point mapping of
the retina in higher visual centers in the brain
Neurons in the primary visual cortex receive input from the
part of the thalamus
Transduction in the visual system: involves photpigment
molecules whose shapes change when they absorb light energy, leads
to change in the membrane potential of photoreceptors, occurs only