midterm - Andrew Kootman ETHN 1036 February 17, 2008...

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Andrew Kootman ETHN 1036 February 17, 2008 Take-Home Exam The Inquisition : Spain was under constant struggle and war over the mix of religions attempting to control the land. Ferdinand and Isabella went to the Pope and chose to take over the land and spread Catholicism to the people in 1478. The first wave came by burning or running out all the Jews and Conversos. Tens of thousands were killed or exiled from the country. The next wave came when Pope Leo X decided to expand the inquisition into Portugal and many of the other Spanish colonies. The burnings and killings would last until 1834 when the Pope stopped the inquisition after being resisted in the Netherlands. In 1834 there were over 300,000 Jews and Conversos killed during the inquisition. The inquisition is one of the deadliest in history. Tomas de Torquemada : Torquemada was born into a converso family. He would hide this for his entire life and work to creating a Spain made of only pureblood white Christians. At age 60 he was appointed as the head of the entire Spanish inquisition. He wrote out 4 ways to tell how your neighbor is not a pureblood and to contact authorities so they would be put on trial. Torquemada most infamous moment came when he put 8 Jews and Conversos for crucifying a Christian child even though no body was ever found. The only testimony came by way of extreme torturing. All 8 were burned at the stake. He was then the main influence on King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in passing a law to expel all Jews out of the country and to never return. After the inquisition ended, he would retire the rest of his life to a monastery and fear of his life. Malleus Maleficarum : This was a manuscript that literally translated to the hammer of witches in Latin. It was published in 1487 and explained witchcraft. It was written by James Sprenger and Henry Kramer and remained in use for 300 years. The manuscript explained how to catch a witch and the way to punish them. It was extremely sexist and primarily focused on women. More specifically, lower class Gypsies, Jews, etc. All it took was for someone to simply claim that another person was practicing witchcraft and they would be tortured and burned without trial. Most of the time, the accuser was given a reward. As a result, innocent women were killed for so much as a birthmark or because they didn’t have any children. Capulli : These were separately self-governed groups that were part of the Aztec empire. Each individual capulli worked with its own government structure and military. Each capulli had their own leader, who would then distribute land based on the size of the family. The family then would raise their own resources to provide for their family base don the size of the land. There was no division based on hierarchy, but simply providing for the families. The idea was to better the entire group as a whole, not survival of the fittest.
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1521 Mexico : 1521 was the year in which the Spanish Conquest finally ended. Hernan Cortes led the army and surrounded Tenochtitlan from all directions. Although the battle
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midterm - Andrew Kootman ETHN 1036 February 17, 2008...

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