Unit I psych 302 - Unit I: Anatomy, Physiology, and...

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Anatomy, Physiology, and Development Lesson I-1: The Mind-Brain Relationship (CH.1, pp. 2-10) Objectives: a) Compare the four types of biological explanations of behavior. -Physiological explanation- relates a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs. Example: physiological approach would look at the brain areas that are associated with music perception. - ontogenic- describes the development of structure or a behavior Example: the ability to inhibit an impulse develops gradually from infancy to teenage years, reflecting gradual maturation of the frontal parts of the brain. - Evolutionary: reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior. Example: human goose bumps raises hair on our arm. However this doesn’t protect us from much. In mammals hair erection makes them look more intimidating. So this is an example that we evolved this mechanism. - Functional: describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did. Example: b) Discuss the four biological explanations of birdsong. - Physiological: a particular area of a songbird brain grows under testosterone, so it is larger in male birds so that brain area enables a mature male to sing. - Ontogenetic: young bird learns song through listening to older birds - Evolutionary: the similarity between song and different species of bird suggest that the two evolved from a single ancestor - functional: functions of song is to attract female and scare away males, so birds have evolved tendencies to sing in ways that improve their chances for mating. c) Identify an objection to dualism. - The decisive objection is that dualism conflicts with a consistently documented observation in physics, known as the law of the conservation of matter and energy. d) Describe three forms of monism. - Materialism: the view that everything that exists is material, or physical - Mentalism: the view that only the mind really exists. Even physical events that surround us are filtered through our own consciousness. - Identity position: the view that mental processes are the same things as certain kinds of brain processes but are described in different terms. Mental and physical stuff are just two aspects of the same thing e) Distinguish between Chalmers’ “easy problem” and “hard problem.” Easy problems pertain to many phenomena that we call consciousness, such as difference between wakefulness and sleep and the mechanisms that enable us to focus our attention. Hard problems concerns why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness Key terms: Dualism: the belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance—mental substance and physical substance—that exists independently. Monism
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Unit I psych 302 - Unit I: Anatomy, Physiology, and...

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