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Unit II psych 302

Unit II psych 302 - Unit II Regulation of Basic Functions...

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Unit II: Regulation of Basic Functions Lesson II-1: Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors, part 1 (CH.6, pp.152-156) Objectives: a) Summarize the law of specific nerve energies. Any activity by a particular nerve always conveys the same kind of info to the brain. It send only one kind of message, an AP. The brain somehow interprets the AP from the auditory nerve as sounds, the olfactory nerve as odors, and the optic nerve as sight. b) Describe the route that visual information travels in the eye. - light passes through the pupil and is projected onto the retina - There are receptors on the retina, and when light hits them, and then the light sends their message to the bipolar cells. - the bipolar cells send their messages to the ganglion cells c) Distinguish between fovea and peripheral vision. Foveal vision has better acuity (sensitivity to detail), and peripheral vision has better sensitivity to dim light. Key terms: receptor potential: a local depolarization or hyper polarization of a receptor membrane law of specific nerve energies : whatever excites a particular nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve pupil: light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the pupil retina: the rear surface of the eye, which is lined with visual receptors bipolar cell : neurons closer to the center of the eye. The receptors send their messages to the bipolar cells rather to the brain ganglion cell : located closer to the center of the eye. Bipolar sends msg to the ganglion cells optic nerve : the ganglion cell axons band together to form an optic nerve. An axon bundle that exsits throguhthe back of the eye blind spot: the point at which the optic nerve leaves is call the blind sopt. It has no receptors fovea: a tiny area specialized for acute, detailed vision midget ganglion cells: the ganglion cells in the fovea of humans and primates because each is small and responds to just a single cone. Lesson II-2: Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors, part 2 (CH.6, pp.156-163) Objectives: a) Distinguish between rods and cones. 1. Rods--abundant in the peripheral area of the retina and respond to faint light but not as well to bright light. 2. Cones-- abundant in the fovea, which is the central part of the retina, they are more useful in bright light and in color vision, less useful in night vision. b) Describe the three major theories of color vision. Young-Helmholtz (trichromatic) theory-- three kinds of cones in the eye, each being sensitive to a specific part of the color spectrum (short wavelength= blue receptors; medium wavelength=green;
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and long=red). The ratio of activity among the three types of cones determines what colors we see. Opponent-process theory - We perceive color in terms of three paired opposites: red-green, yellow-blue, and white-black. This explains why there are afterimages. In the absence of activation of blue receptor, we see yellow.
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Unit II psych 302 - Unit II Regulation of Basic Functions...

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