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Unformatted text preview: Describe Piaget's stages of development and the nature of mental representations (and operations) at each stage Sensorimotor stage- first stage, happens within birth to two years of age. This stage has 6 sub stages. Object permanence occurs around 6 months and competence vs. performance happens at this stage.- infants gradually learn there is a relationship between their actions and the external world.- reflexive schema (birth - 1 month)- also called newborn reflexes. Reflexes such as stepping, rooting, blinking, babinski reflex, moro (startle) reflex, sucking, palmer grasp, and swimming- primary circular reactions (1 - 4 months)- simple motor schema- secondary circular reactions (4 - 8 months)- slightly more complex motor schema, but will not search for an object- Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8 - 12 months)- goal directed actions- Tertiary circular reactions (12 - 18 months)- novel use of familiar objects- New mental representation: (18 24 months)- make believe schema Preoperational stage- happens between 2 and 6 years. They can not do operations like (+,-,/,*). Conservation and egocentrism occurs. Egocentrism is the inability for a preoperational child to take anothers point of view.- Children develop the ability to form mental representations of objects and events. At the same time, language develops, as does the beginning of thinking in words.- They begin make-believe play ..., enacting familiar routines, such as pretending to eat or go to sleep. In order to create play, they must represent these activities mentally and translate them into overt actions. Object permanence : happens around the age of 6 months. Before this age the baby will look at an object and when that object is covered, the object does not exist to that baby. Out of sight out of mind.- Infants after the age of 6 months will search for the hidden object. They have developed object permanence-the understanding that objects continue to exist even after they are no longer seen. Contrast competence versus performance- Competence is what the learner can do under test conditions and performance is what the learner does do habitually under day-to-day conditions (often with no one watching). Describe how possible and impossible events can be used to understand infants understanding of objects- Infants look longer at impossible events. Longer looking time indicates that an infant understands physical rule such as the object will continue to exists when masked by other objects, objects cannot remain stable without support, object move on continuous paths if the relations are correct and objects cannot move through space occupied by other objects....
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSYC 340 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.
- Spring '08