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Agriculture - 11:45:00 AM Chapter 10 Agriculture(From Book...

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26/11/2007 12:45:00 Chapter 10: Agriculture (From Book) Section 1 Where did Agriculture Originate?     Origins of agriculture Location of agricultural hearths Classifying agricultural regions o “The origin cannot be determined. It began before recorded history” 1) Origins of Agriculture o Agriculture -deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through  cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain economic gain. Cultivate means “to care for” o Crop -any plant cultivated by people Hunters and Gatherers Before the invention of agriculture, people had to hunt and  gather to survive. They lived in small groups, because a large group would quickly  exhaust the available resources within walking distance.
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The direction and frequency of migration depended on the  movement of game and the seasonal growth of plants at various  locations. Today, less than .005% survive on hunting and gathering Invention of Agriculture While gathering, people accidentally dropped fruits and seeds.  Over time, they observed that damaged or discarded food  produced new plants.  They may have deliberately done it to experiment. Later generations learned to pour water over the site and  make soil improvements Prehistoric Domestication People may have originally domesticated animals for  non-economic reasons For example: religious sacrifices, or pets Two Types of Cultivation Vegetative Planting The reproduction of plants by direct cloning from  existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing  roots  The earliest form of cultivation according to Carl  Sauer  Seed Agriculture The reproduction of plants through annual planting  of seeds that result from sexual fertilization Practiced by most farmers today
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2) Location of Agricultural Hearths o Began in multiple, independent hearths o From these hearths, agricultural practice diffused across the Earth’s  surface Location of First      Vegetative      Planting     Southeast Asia (according to Sauer) Because of the diverse climate and topography  Encouraged growth for dividing and transplanting Much of food in Southeast Asia was gathered by fishing Because of this, they were more sedentary, so  they can pay attention to growing plants Dog, pig, and chicken were probably first domesticated  animals in Southeast Asia West Africa Northwestern South America Location of First Seed Agriculture Sauer’s 3 hearths India
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Northern China Ethiopia Random fact: Southwest Asia were first to integrate seed  agriculture with domestication of herd animals
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