100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 22 pages.
Torts Outline – Bernstein Fall 2019I. NegligenceNegligence OverviewNegligence Prima Facie Case: 1)Injury2)Duty (obligation to act with reasonable care) – law for judge3)Breach (did D deviate from the ideal) – fact for jury4)Causation (without the act, the injury would not have occurred) – fact for jurya.Actualb.ProximatePlaintiff has to prove all four elements to recover, the defendant only has to refute one. DutyNegligence requires that the actor owe the victim a duty to follow a particular standard of care. If a duty arises, the actor must behave according to the applicable standard of care or risk negligence liability. Thestandard of care is not the same in every situation in which a duty exists. Duty typically requires: 1)Relationship between parties2)Reasonable foreseeability of harm3)Public policy interestsHeaven v. Pender – Affirmative duty!Physicalharm + Misfeasance: when your activity poses a foreseeable risk of physically injuringa person, you have a duty of reasonable careMacPherson v. Buick:No privity required; as long as injury foreseeable/probable danger, then duty. Palsgraf v. Long Island R. Co.:Unforeseeable π’s claim arises based on the negligence of ∆ w/ respect to different π. Cardozo: negligence is a term that imports relationAndrew Dissents: He only needs 1) Injury, 2) Unreasonable conduct, 3) Actual Cause. Duty & ExceptionsMost of the time, we have a duty of reasonable care owed to foreseeable victims (Heaven v. Pender),except: 1)Rescue (Osterlind v. Hill)2)Premises Liability (RowlandFactors)3)Economic Loss (Aikens v. DeBow)4)Policy (Strauss v. Belle)5)Emotional Distress1
Torts Outline – Bernstein Fall 20191.Affirmative Duties to Rescue:The basic rule is there is no duty to rescue. Osterlind v. Hill (canoe)oPolicy rationale: infringement on individual liberties by forcing unwilling bystanders toact; difficult to write obligations. Nonfeasance: failure to actEven if a rescue is easy, it’s not requiredExceptions to No Duty to Rescue: duty to make reasonable effortsto rescuea)Imminent peril caused by D (Weakest)i.Created risk or harm (even non-negligently), duty to exercise reasonable careto assist. ii.Second Injury Rule, may be liable for harmed persons medical complications. iii.When an actor’s prior conduct, even though not tortious, creates a continuingrisk of physical harm of a type characteristic of the conduct, the actor has aduty to exercise reasonable care to prevent or minimize the harmb)Voluntary Undertaking If an actor voluntarily undertakes a rescue, a duty to follow through is established and theactor must exercise reasonable care. i.Overt, explicit statement or gesture ii.Obligated to exercise reasonable care in undertaking. c)Special Relationship (between D and P)i.Some categories recognize duty for reasonable care, including to rescue:a.The Carrier/Passenger (Common Carrier)b.The Innkeeper-Guestc.Landowner-Entrant/Inviteed.Custodian-Warde.Employer-Employee…f.Duty of care for friends on a social/joint venture to protect oneanother.