CONTENTSChapter-1: Origin Of DramaChapter-2: The Elements Of DramaChapter-3: Asian DramaChapter-4: Forms Of DramaChapter-5: Dramatic StructureChapter-6: Comedy (Drama)Chapter-7: Play (Theatre)Chapter-8: Theories Of TheatreChapter-9: Theater StructureChapter-10: Shakespeare's PlaysChapter-11: American DramaChapter-12: Othello–William Shakespear
Chapter-1Origin of DramaDrama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greekword meaning "action" (Classical Greek: drama), which is derived from the verb meaning "todo" or "to act‖. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before anaudience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. Thestructure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by thiscollaborative production and collective reception. The early modern tragedy Hamlet (1601) byShakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus the King (c. 429 BC) by Sophocles areamong the masterpieces of the art of drama. A modern example is Long Day's Journey into Nightby Eugene O‘Neill (1956).The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedyand tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia and Melpomene. Thalia wasthe Muse of comedy (the laughing face), while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy (theweeping face). Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has beencontrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle's Poetics (c. 335 BC)—theearliest work of dramatic theory.The use of "drama" in the narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the 19thcentury. Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example,Zola's Thérèse Raquin (1873) or Chekhov's Ivanov (1887). It is this narrow sense that the filmand television industry and film studies adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within theirrespective media. "Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a liveperformance, it has also been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of thedramatic output of radio.Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in opera is generally sungthroughout; musicals generally include both spoken dialogue and songs; and some forms ofdrama have incidental music or musical accompaniment underscoring the dialogue (melodramaand Japanese Nō, for example). In certain periods of history (the ancient Roman and modern
Romantic) some dramas have been written to be read rather than performed. In improvisation,the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance; performers devise a dramatic scriptspontaneously before an audience.