12/27/2016 1 ELEMENTS OF ENGINEERING I (ENGG 111) BUILDING MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND STRUCTURE
12/27/2016 2 SUPERSTRUCTRE The portion above the ground level and below the ground floor level is known as plinth . The portion above the ground floor level is known as super structure . It includes walls, columns, beams, floors, roofs, doors, windows, lintels, staircases etc. Types of Superstructure based on the method of Load Transfer Load Bearing Structures 1. Load on the structure is transferred vertically downward through walls. 2. Cost is less. 3. Suitable up to three stories. 4. Walls are thicker and hence more floor area is reduced. 5. Resistance to earthquake is poor.
12/27/2016 3 Framed Structures 1. Load transferred through frame work of columns, beams and floors 2. Cost is more. 3. Suitable for any number of stories. 4. Walls are thinner and hence more floor area available for use. 5. Resistance to earthquake forces is good A. WALLS Walls are built as structural members and as partition to divide living area into different parts Load Bearing Walls: 1. When beams and columns are not used, load from roof and floors are transferred to foundation by walls, 2. Minimum wall thickness used is 200 mm.
12/27/2016 4 3. Stones or bricks are used for the construction. 4. Load bearing walls are exterior walls ,typically above c/line of beam Partition Walls 1. In framed structures partition walls are built to divide floor area for different utilities.
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