7 - Student Circulatory System.pdf - Circulatory System Unit 7 Functions of Blood 1 Transport of gases(O2 and CO2 2 Allows for immune responses

7 - Student Circulatory System.pdf - Circulatory System...

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Unformatted text preview: Circulatory System Unit 7 Functions of Blood 1. Transport of gases (O2 and CO2), ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ 2. Allows for immune responses Characteristics of Blood ● ● ● Temperature ~ 38℃ (_________) pH ~ ___________ (weak base) Blood Volume ○ ○ ● Color: ○ ○ ● ___________ L in MALES ___________ L in FEMALES Oxygenated = _____________________ Deoxygenated = ___________________ 8% of total body weight Composition of Blood BLOOD is made up of 1) ____________________________(55%) - Mostly H2O (91.5%) Salts (1.5%) Plasma Proteins (7%) - 1) albumin - _____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ - 2) globulins - form antibodies (immune response) - 3) fibrinogen - found in liver, contribute to ____________________ 2) ____________________________ (45%) - ERYTHROCYTES = _____________________________________________ - 99% _________________________________________ = White Blood Cells THROMBOCYTES= Platelets (blood clotting) Red Blood Cells = ERYTHROCYTES - Transport oxygen because of pigment HEMOGLOBIN transport CO2 - Shape = _______________________________________ - Simple = no nucleus (no DNA), no mitosis - Life Span = _____________________________ - ________________________________ = produce RBC (erythropoiesis) - ________________ = destroys old RBC (liver and kidneys) - MOST NUMEROUS - 5,500,000 per mm3 of blood in MALES 4,800,000 per mm3 of blood in FEMALES Red Blood Cells = ERYTHROCYTES HEMOGLOBIN - pigment ● Function: ○ ● Structure: ○ ● ● ● ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 4 globin chains → O2, CO2, nutrients attaches heme group → contains IRON at center ______________________ = low iron OXYHEMOGLOBIN: Carry 4 O2 molecules CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN: Carry 1 CO2 molecule White Blood Cells = LEUKOCYTES - ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ - Larger in size - Lifespan = ____________________ - Types: - Granulocytes (neutrophils and basophils/eosinophils) Agranulocytes (monocytes, lymphocytes) White Blood Cells = LEUKOCYTES GRANULOCYTES 1) NEUTROPHILS - macrophages; _________________________________ a) 60-70% of WBC 2) BASOPHIL (EOSINOPHILS) - ___________________________________ a) b) Reduce swelling 2.5-5% of WBC White Blood Cells = LEUKOCYTES AGRANULOCYTES 1) LYMPHOCYTES - immune responses a) b) c) B-cells: ________________________________________ (find foreign antigens) T-cells: ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 20-25% of WBC 2) MONOCYTES - engulf bacteria and viruses a) 3-8% of WBC ELEVATED WBC COUNT = infection LEUKEMIA = _________________________________ - Treatment = _________________________________________ Platelets + Fibrinogen PLATELETS = BLOOD CLOTTING FIBRINOGEN = Fibrin + Clotting Factor (platelets) Blood Types _______________ = protein marker on outside of cell membrane _______________ = identify foreign antigens Blood Type A Blood Type AB Blood Type B Blood Type O Blood Types Blood Type Antigen on RBC Antibody on Plasma Compatible Donors GENOTYPE A B AB O Punnett Square Mom: AB Mom: AO Dad: OO Dad: AB A B A O O A O B Chance of blood type: A ______ B _____ AB _____ O _____ Chance of blood type: A ______ B _____ AB _____ O _____ Blood Types ** If wrong blood type, AGGLUTINATION will occur (__________________________) Transfusion Reactions - RBC lysed hemoglobin into bloodstream → RENAL FAILURE → decreased 02 in blood Rh Factor ● ● ● ● ___________________________________ (Rh) Rh+ = receive positive or negative blood Rh- = receive negative blood only *If Rh- person receives Rh+ blood, the body starts to make Rh antibodies that remain in blood ○ ● If second transfusion of Rh+ blood, agglutination occurs Universal DONOR = __________________ Hemolytic Disease of Newborn ● ● Rh+ mom = no worries Rh- mom and Rh+ baby = worry ○ ○ ● 1st child is unaffected (mom builds antibodies) 2nd child = hemolytic disease of newborn Mother - drug RhoGAM to prevent anti-Rh antibodies ○ ○ If not treated, cross into placenta and destroy baby’s RBC Causes HYPOXIA → brain damage Cardiovascular System - Responsible for delivering the ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ and removing their metabolic waste products Heart - Pump that propels blood through arteries, capillaries, and veins 3 layers 1) 2) 3) _____________________________________ - fluid filled sac that surrounds heart a) PERICARDIAL CAVITY _____________________________________ - cardiac muscle a) Contract and push blood _____________________________________ - lining of chambers (atria and ventricles) and 3 valves Cardiac Cycle = Blood moving through heart DIASTOLE = __________________________________________ SYSTOLE = __________________________________________ BP = Average = 120 80 4 Steps of Cardiac Cycle 1) Atrial Systole a) b) _______________________________________________________________________ Push blood from atria into ventricles through tricuspid and bicuspid valves 2) Ventricular Diastole a) b) ______________________________________________________ Once full, tri+bicuspid valves close (“_______” sound) 3) Ventricular Systole a) b) c) d) ______________________________________ ______________________________________ RIGHT VENTRICLE = out thru semilunar valves and pulmonary arteries to lungs LEFT VENTRICLE = out thru semilunar valves and aorta 4) Atrial Diastole a) b) ___________________________________________________________ Semilunar valves close (“_________” sound) Cardiac Cycle - Heart Murmur = ______________________________________________________ → blood trickles through - Conduction = impulses that allow heart to contract are independent of nervous system - _________________________________________________________________________ = generates impulses for heart conduction - Located along walls of right atrium ______________________________________ → determines how fast heart beats - Average = 70-80 bpm Pathway of Impulse Sinoatrial Node (SA Node) Atrioventricular Node (AV Node) between Atria and Ventricles Bundle of HIS Purkinje Fibers = allow impulse to spread around heart Electrocardiogram VOLTAGE EKG - measures electrical current through heart TIME Draw EKG EKG cont. ● P Wave = ○ ● ● ______________________________________________________________ 2 Atria Contract (SYSTOLE) QRS Wave = ___________________________________________________________ T Wave = ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________ Arrhythmia ARRHYTHMIA = ____________________________________________________________ - DEFIBRILLATION = shock the heart, shut down to return to normal pattern Arrhythmias NORMAL Sinus Rhythm = 60-100 bpm 1. ____________________________________________________ a. Very slow ventricular contraction, P waves widely separated from peaks of QRS complexes (25-45 bpm at rest) 2. Bradycardia a. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Tachycardia a. ________________________________________________________________________ Arrhythmias 4. ___________________________ a. b. c. Irregular, rapid atrial depolarizations, P waves rapid with irregular QRS complexes (150-170 bpm) Heart palpitations, SOB, weakness Can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure 5. ___________________________ a. b. Complete disruption of normal heart rhythm More serious - cannot pump blood 3 Types of Circulation 1. ________________________________________________________________________ a. Blood to and from lungs b. PULMONARY ARTERIES - send blood from heart to lungs i. Only arteries with ________________________________________ blood c. PULMONARY VEINS - return blood from lungs to heart i. Only veins with ________________________________________ blood 2. ________________________________________________________________________ a. Blood to and from heart muscles b. Coronary arteries and veins c. Blockage = coronary thrombosis → can lead to heart attack (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION) 3. ________________________________________________________________________ a. Blood to and from body b. See next slide Circulation Red = oxygenated Blue = deoxygenated PULMONARY Capillaries Pulmonary Veins (IN LUNGS) Pulmonary Artery HEART SYSTEMIC VEINS (SUPERIOR/INFERIOR VENA CAVA) (AORTA) VENULES ARTERIES ARTERIOLES CAPILLARIES (smallest gas exchange - oxygen to cells) Blood Vessels 1. Arteries and Arterioles a. b. c. d. e. f. Arterioles = smaller arteries ________________________________________ i. Except the pulmonary artery High pressure blood flow Walls of artery = elastic tissue, smooth muscle, collagen (strength) ________________________________________ = widen vessel/lumen (decrease BP) ________________________________________ = narrow vessel/lumen (increase BP) Blood Vessels 2. Capillaries a. b. Microscopic Allow for diffusion of gas, nutrients, water, hormones i. _____________________________________ _____________________________________ 3. Veins and Venules a. b. c. d. e. Venule = small vein Carry DEOXYGENATED blood back to heart Low blood pressure Contains ________________________________ i. _____________________________________ Varicose Veins = due to weakened valves → backflow of blood cell capillary ...
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