e1.pdf - EPSC 201 MIDTERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE Fall 2018 find more resources at oneclass.com TEXTBOOK STUDY VS SLIDES For EVERY topic Objective 1 Understand

e1.pdf - EPSC 201 MIDTERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE Fall 2018 find...

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EPSC 201 MIDTERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE Fall 2018
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TEXTBOOK STUDY VS SLIDES For EVERY topic Objective 1 : Understand the general idea (not specifics do not get overwhelmed ) Objective 2 : understand what the teacher might want to ask you Objective 3 : specifics: know names, places, terms etc Objective 4 : do the questions in the slides Earth in context (chap 1) Know what people thought about the universe at different times (see slides) Earliest thoughts : geocentric 467-1400 CE people thought earth was the centre of the universe Later in the heliocentric period ( during the renaissance ) people thought that the earth and planets orbited the sun which was the centre of the universe Finally modern era : there is no centre of the universe , everything is in constant motion To understand how light spectrum affects the planet see p21 in textbook Doppler effect : change in frequency or wave length of sound, light or other waves if the source is approaching the observer the frequency is blue-shifted (higher frequency and shorter wavelength), if the source is moving away from the observer the frequency is red-shifted (lower frequency and longer wavelength) Big Bang Theory : -a long time ago all mass and energy was in a small area that was hot and exploded first neutrons/protons/electrons formed, second all hydrogen atoms - evidence : -380,000 yrs after cosmic microwave background on the sky left glow in the sky -mix of elements left on earth include primordial gas from big bang Birth and Death of Stars : -nuclear reactions require extreme temperatures -stars had to form before heavier elements could form - gravity caused collapse of gaseous nebulae which caused increase in temperature, density, and rate of rotation gravity formed protostar -with nuclear fusion protostar ignited fusion releases energy at center of star that goes against gravity and doesn’t collapse - red giant is a large star late process with no hydrogen left in core to fuel nuclear fusion - supernova is dead star runs out of fuel, collapse, explodes find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
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Nebular theory : model for explaining the sequence of stages which stars/planets form nebula -nebula forms from hydrogen and helium left over from big bang/heavy elements from fusion in star explosion 2) gravity: pulls gas and dusk to form proto-sun 3) becomes sun 4) dust and ice form planetesimals 5) planetesimals grow by collision and shape proto-earth 6) gravity shapes proto-earth into sphere 7) after earth forms proto-planet collides to create rings 8)moon forms rings 9) atmosphere forms from volcanic gases Earth’s ŵagŶetic field -a dipole with both a north pole and south pole -solar wind interacts with the magnetic field -magnetic field deflects most of the solar wind away from earth acting as a shield -inside magnetic field is the magnetosphere -Van Allen radiation belts are inside magnetosphere and trap solar winds and cosmic rays Atmosphere and what It is p 28 textbook and slides -atmosphere is gas that surrounds planet mostly nitrogen and oxygen
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