EPSC 201 FINAL EXAMINATION Preparation Part 1: Multiple Choices (60 questions, each 0.5 points total 30 marks) Part 2: Short Answers (Best 10 out of 16 questionnaires total 30 marks)Topics: ■ Paleomagnetism and geomagnetic pole paths■The Juan de Fuca ridge and plate■Age of oceanic crustal rocks■Metamorphism from a mudstone■Marble■Causes of mass extinctions■ Global temperature variation through geological time■Megathrust earthquakes■Metasomatism and neocrystallization■ Outwash style of rivers and streams■Chert■Styles of volcanic edifices■ The Hawaiian Island chain■ Atmospheric CO2since industrialization■The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets■ James Lovelock's Gaïa hypothesis The Juan de fuca ridge and plateTheJuan de Fuca Ridgeis atectonicspreading centerlocated off the coasts of the state ofWashingtonin theUnited Statesand the province ofBritish ColumbiainCanada. It runs northward from a transform boundary, theBlanco Fracture Zone, to atriple junctionwith theNootka Faultand theSovanco Fracture Zone. To its east is theJuan de Fuca Plate, which together with theGorda Plateto its south and theExplorer Plateto its north, is what remains of the once-vastFarallon Platewhich has been largely subducted under theNorth American Plate. To its west is thePacific Plate. The Juan de Fuca Ridge is a remnant of the formerPacific–Farallon Ridge.Age of oceanic crustal rocks (Ch.2)Oceanic crust spreads away from the ridge axis. - New crust is closer to the ridge; older crust farther away.- Oldest oceanic crust is found at the far edge of the basin.- In the oceanic lithosphere map, Red represents youngest and Blue oldest.
-The oldest large scale oceanic crust is in the west Pacific and north-west Atlantic - both are about up to 180-200 million years old. However, parts of the easternMediterranean Seaare remnants of the much olderTethys ocean, at about 270 million years old.