SOC-Ch.-5.docx - Wed Feb 8 Soc Ch 5(Socialization Social...

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Wed, Feb 8Soc: Ch. 5 (Socialization)-Social Experience: The Key to Our HumanitySocialization:The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture.Personality:A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting-Human Development: Nature and NurtureThe Biological Sciences:The Role of Nature; initially, Europeans linked culturaldifferences to biologyThe Social Sciences:The Role of Nurture; behaviourism holds that behaviour isnot instinctive but learnedIsolation (being cut off from the social world) can cause permanent developmen-tal damage-Understanding SocializationSix researchers have made lasting contributions to our understanding of human development:Sigmund FreudJean PiagetLawrence KohlbergCarol GilliganGeorge Herbert MeadErik H. Erikson-Sigmund Freud’s Elements of PersonalityBasic human needs:Eros (“life instinct,” emotion) and thanatos (“death,” ag-gression) as opposing forcesFreud’s model of personality:Id:Basic, unconscious, and demanding drivesEgo:Efforts to achieve balanceSuperego: Culture within, conscious Personality developmentId and superego are in constant states of conflict, with the ego balancing the two-Critical ReviewStudies reflect gender biasInfluences the study of personalitySociologists note Freud’s contributionsInternalization of social normsChildhood experiences have lasting affect
-Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentCognition:How people think and understandStages of developmentSensorimotor stage:Sensory contact understandingPreoperational stage:Use of language and other symbolsConcrete operational stage:Perception of causal connections in surroundingsFormal operational stage:Abstract, critical thinking-Critical ReviewDiffered from Freud, viewing the mind as active and creative.Cognitive stages are the result of biological maturation and social experience.

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