GenPsych - Ch11 Motivation

GenPsych - Ch11 Motivation - Lecture Outline Motivation...

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Lecture Outline Motivation Sources of motivation. Hunger. Sexuality. Motivation in work and other chosen activities. Theoretical framework: Reiss’s universal end goals. Sources of Motivation The defining characteristic of motivation is that it is goal-directed . In goal-directed activity, a variety of behaviors or strategies are attempted until a particular end is reached. Biological motivations derive from the evolutionary requirements of survival, reproduction, and physical well-being. Instincts, drives, homeostasis. Psychological motivations such as values, personal goals, and preferences reflect social norms, cultural values, individual experience, and thought. The Brain’s “Pleasure Center” The brain’s “pleasure center” is a circuit through the brain stem, hypothalamus, limbic system, and frontal lobes. Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter in this circuit. Olds (1959): Rats will press a bar until they are totally exhausted in order to receive direct electrical stimulation to the pleasure center.
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Homeostasis The tendency of the body to maintain constancy of the internal environment. Core body temperature is defended: Increased core temperature leads to sweating. Decreased core temperature leads to shivering. Behavior can serve as part of the homeostatic process: Blood sugar levels dip Æ we eat. Core body temperature goes up Æ we take off a layer of clothes and look for iced tea. Psychological Motivations Psychologists have proposed and studied motives of the following types: Competence. Autonomy. Power (to be dominant or in control). Affiliation, intimacy, attachment. Self-esteem. Need to believe in a just world. Need for cognition. Achievement. Historically the most studied psychological motivation. Hunger: Physiological Factors Physiologically, hunger is a response to the levels of glucose and fatty acids in the blood stream. Manipulations of glucose level alters eating. Injections of glucose into the bloodstream will delay the meal. Reducing the level of glucose in blood will intensify hunger. Damage to the hypothalamus can have major effects on the amount eaten. The hypothalamus contains receptors sensitive to the level of glucose in the bloodstream. Some taste preferences are present at birth. Humans and mammals prefer the taste of fat. Temporary taste cravings are reported by most people on occasion, and most are difficult to explain. Exception: Salt craving. Why Do We Stop Eating? There are receptors in the stomach for: Stretch. Nutrients.
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Overeating Biological factors. Obesity is heritable (twin studies).
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course 830 101 taught by Professor Brill during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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GenPsych - Ch11 Motivation - Lecture Outline Motivation...

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