Lecture Outline •Learning. –Overview of Different Approaches. –The Behaviorist Approach: •Classical Conditioning. •Operant Conditioning. –The Cognitive Approach. •Cognitive Principles of Learning •Expectancies Different Approaches •Behaviorist:–Learning is an enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience. •Cognitive: –Learning is the accumulation and organization of knowledge. •Sensation, perception, consciousness, motives, attention, memory, and thought all play a role in learning. The Behaviorist Approach •Behaviorists, who dominated American psychology from about 1920 to 1960, asserted that concepts related to mind are unscientific. Why? –A reaction to frustration with philosophy and early psychology (in particular, Titchener’s Structuralism). –A strong desire for psychology to be a “real” science, along with the associated promise of a behavioral technology. •Success of Pavlov’s classical conditioning work. The Behaviorist Approach (Cont.) •Behavior takes place in a universe that works by cause and effect, so behavior too must have causes. •Psychology should deal only with observable and measurable events: –The objective features of a situation. –The observable behavior of an organism. •The basic laws of learning can be found by studying how animals learn. •Behavior is the product of a history of stimuli and responses, plus the effects of natural physiological states.
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