GenPsych - Ch07 MemoryPart3

GenPsych - Ch07 MemoryPart3 - Lecture Outline Early...

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Early theories and research on memory. The “standard” model of memory. The complexities memory. Ways of remembering. Explicit vs. implicit memory. Depth of Processing, Encoding Specificity, and Transfer Appropriate Processing. Emotions and memory. Early Work in Memory – Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) Used nonsense syllables so as to know exactly when learning occurred. Produced detailed measurements of how long it took to learn lists (savings). Early Work in Memory – William James (1990) In the 19 th century, William James distinguished between two types of memory: Primary memory . Like the last remnants of the present moment. Lasts for a short while, a few seconds or so. Very limited amount of information. Subsequently known as short-term memory ( STM ) or working memory ( WM ). Secondary memory . Has left consciousness entirely and then returned. Lasts for a long time (possibly an entire lifetime). Large amounts of information (theoretically limitless). Subsequently known as long-term memory ( LTM ). The Information Processing View Once psychologists returned to studying mental processes in the 1950’s, the computer was used as an analogy for understanding memory: The computer has a “buffer” – a temporary storage place for letters that you type faster than it can display them. Analogous to our sensory memory store. The computer has RAM, or random-access memory, for temporary storage of information that has not yet been written to the hard drive. This information is still vulnerable to damage or loss. Analogous to our short-term memory (STM), or working memory (WM). The computer has a hard drive, in which information that you are writing or entering can
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GenPsych - Ch07 MemoryPart3 - Lecture Outline Early...

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