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2PETER G NELSONINTRODUCTION TOCHEMISTRYA PROGRESSIVE APPROACH
3Introduction to chemistry: A progressive approach1stedition© 2017 Peter G Nelson &bookboon.comISBN 978-87-403-1805-0Peer review by Dr. David A. Johnson, emeritus reader at the Open University, UK
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRYCONTENTS4CONTENTSAcknowledgements71Introduction81.1Approach81.2What chemistry is about82Some important materials and how they are made92.1Some techniques used in making materials92.2Some important materials142.3Some classes of material292.4Cells used to generate electricity313Basic ideas and terminology323.1Introduction323.2Matter323.3Substances and solutions333.4Elements and compounds373.5Summary of definitions4040 moreyears ofinteractionWe are always seeking talents, both summer projectstudents, graduate engineers and experienced personnel.Please viewJobs at ConocoPhillipsForty years ago, Norway’s first oil productionstarted – from the Ekofisk field. Until now, around1,804 billion Norwegian kroner worth of valuecreation has been generated from this and otherfields in the Greater Ekofisk Area through interaction.Now we are investing in further development ofthese fields – and preparing for the next 40 years.Looking ahead –and looking northwards.We have ambitionsof growing on theNorwegian continentalshelf and continuingas a key player.The Ekofisk Complex todaydrivkraft • Photo: Kjetil Alsvik 2011
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY5CONTENTS4Some important elements424.1Scope424.2Chemistry of some important elements424.3More on acids, bases, and salts564.4Types of element575Basic laws and phenomena of chemistry585.1Quantitative chemistry585.2Laws and phenomena of chemistry595.3Percentage composition of substances646The constitution of matter656.1Atoms and molecules656.2Atomic compositions676.3Molecular and non-molecular substances726.4Avogadro number777Chemical calculations797.1Chemical equations797.2Calculating quantities in reactions817.3Amount of substance and the mole857.4Qualitative and quantitative analysis887.5Incomplete reactions908Formulae of substances and valency938.1Scope938.2Formulae of important substances938.3Groups of atoms968.4Valency979Relations among elements1039.1Families of elements1039.2Periodicity1049.3Electrochemical series and electronegativity109
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY6CONTENTS10More on electrolytes11210.1Aim11210.2Electrolyte solutions11210.3Ionic charges11410.4Solid electrolytes11710.5Important ions11710.6Reactions involving electrolytes11811Structures of atoms11911.1Scope11911.2Electrical properties of gases and the electron11911.3Isotopes12111.4The nucleus and atomic structure12411.5Configurations of electrons in atoms12611.6Quantum theory12911.7Radiochemistry13011.8Structure of the nucleus13112Further study133Answers to problems133
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY7ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI am very grateful to Dr. David Johnson of the Open University UK for reading throughdrafts of this book and commenting extensively on them.

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