CHM116Invs10

CHM116Invs10 - Investigation 10: "Are All...

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Investigation 10: “Are All Neutralization Reactions the Same?” Group 1: Amber Dethlefsen, Jewell Sharpe, Matt Waters February 24, 2007 TA: Chenpei Hung Chemistry 116, CG TH 12:40
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Introduction: For all chemical reactions, a change in energy always occurs. This change in energy is often displayed as a change in heat. When an exothermic reaction occurs, heat is released out of the system and into the surroundings. The opposite is true for an endothermic reaction. Both of these types of reactions involve a change in energy, as well as a change in heat. This property of chemical reactions is stated in the first law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is always conserved and will remain constant through out the universe. In Investigation 10, “Are All Neutralization Reactions the Same?”, an environmental firm has noticed that heat is released during neutralization reactions of acids. The heat that is being released during this reaction is adding to the pollution of the environment directly surrounding the firm. The environmental firm requests the help of the scientists to understand why this phenomenon is occurring. The environmental firm wishes that these neutralization reactions be studied for a variety of different acids at different molar concentrations. Ultimately, the environmental firm wishes to understand how the heat released during theses reactions is related to the different types of acids and their molarity. The goals of this laboratory investigation are to determine the heats of reaction, specifically neutralization reactions. This will involve applying the first law of thermodynamics. Another goal of this investigation is to observe how the differing acids and differing concentrations of the acids affects the heat that is released. This experimentation is necessary in order to answer the questions that are posed by the environmental firm and to determine whether or not these neutralization reactions are contributing to the pollution in the area. This lab will involve the use of several different chemicals, both acids and bases at different molarities, in order to perform different trials and gage the differences in heat, which gives a better understanding of the changes in energy that is occurring during the neutralization reaction. Experimental: The materials that were required for this experiment were a thermometer, Styrofoam cups with
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lids, stirring rods, 1M solutions of HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , and HC 2 H 3 O 2 and 2M solutions of HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , and HC 2 H 3 O 2 , graduated cylinders, and pipettes. The initial step in the experiment was to measure 20 ml of 1M HCl using a graduated cylinder. This was poured into a large Styrofoam cup. Next, the temperature was measured every 20 seconds for at least three time intervals that remained consistent to ensure a constant initial temperature. Next, 20 ml of the base 1M NaOH was measured using a graduated cylinder and added to the Styrofoam cup. The lid was quickly placed on top of the Styrofoam cup to make sure that no heat escaped. A
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CHM116Invs10 - Investigation 10: "Are All...

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