Chapter 14.docx - 1 Chapter 14 - The Brain and Cranial...

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Chapter 14 - The Brain and Cranial NervesMonday, July 11, 20161:51 PMObjectivesAfter completing this chapter, you should be able to1.identify the principal parts of the brain, and describe how the brain is protected.2.explain the formation, circulation, and functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).3.compare the structure and functions of the brain stem, cerebellum and diencephalon(including the thalamus and hypothalamus).4.describe the cortex, gyri, fissures and sulci of the cerebrum.5.name and describe the locations of the lobes of the cerebrum.6.describe the functions of the basal ganglia and the limbic system.7.describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of thecerebral cortex.8.explain the significance of hemispheric lateralization.9.define brain waves and explain their significance.10.define the termcranial nerve, and identify the twelve pairs of cranial nerves by name,number, and functions.11.describe briefly the few main brain disorders.Keywords and TopicsMake certain that you can define, and use in context, each of the terms listed below, andthat you understand the significance of each of the concepts.1.Identify the principal parts of the brain, and describe how the brain is protected.1
oprotective coverings1.cranial meninges (singular is meninx)2.dura mater3.arachnoid mater4.pia mater2
oblood brain barrier (BBB)Consists mainly of tight junctions that seal together the endothelial cells ofbrain blood capillaries and a thick basement membrane that surround thecapillaries. Astrocytes press up against the capillaries and secretechemicals that maintain the permeability characterists of the tightjunctions.Only some water-soluble substances , such as glucose, cross theBBB by active transport.Other substances, such as creatinine, urea, andmost ions, cross the BBB very slowly. Still others, like proteins andantibiotics, do not pass at all.Oxygen, carbon dioxide and alcohol do cross3
(these are lipid soluble substances).

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