Chapter 37.docx - Chapter 37 The Eisenhower Era I II III...

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Chapter 37: The Eisenhower EraI.Affluence and Its AnxietiesA.The invention of the transistor in 1948 sparked a revolution in electronics, especially in computersB.Computer giant International Business Machines (IBM) grew tremendouslyC.Aerospace industries grew in the 1950s, in large part due to Eisenhower's SAC and to an expanding passenger airline businessD.In 1956, the number of "white-collar" (no manual labor) workers exceeded the number of "blue-collar" (manual labor) workersE.As a result, union memberships declinedF.White-collar jobs opened up opportunities for womenG.The majority of clerical and service jobs created after 1950 were filled by womenH.Women's new dual role as a worker and a homemaker raised questions about family life and about traditional definitions of gender rolesI.Feminist Betty Friedan published in 1963 The Feminine Mystique, helping to launch the modern women's movement. The book discussed the widespread unhappiness of women who were housewivesII.Consumer Culture in the FiftiesA.The innovations of the credit card, fast-food, and new forms of recreation highlighted the emerging lifestyle of leisure and affluenceB.In 1946, there were only 6 TV stations, but there were 146 by 1956. "Televangelists" like Baptist Billy Graham used the TV to spread ChristianityC.As the population moved west, sports teams also moved westD.Popular music was transformed during the 1950sE.Elvis Presley created a new style known as rock and rollF.Traditionalists were critical of Presley and many of the social movements during the 1950sIII.The Advent of EisenhowerA.Lacking public support for Truman, the Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson for the election of 1952 and the Republicans nominated Dwight D. EisenhowerB.Eisenhower was already well-liked by the public. Richard M. Nixon was chosen for vice-president to satisfy the anticommunist wing of the Republican PartyC.During this election, TV became a popular medium for campaigningD.During the campaign, Nixon went on TV to defend himself against corruption allegations "Checkers speech"E.Eisenhower won the election of 1952 by a large majorityF.President Eisenhower attempted to end the Korean WarG.In July 1953, after Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons, an armistice was signed, ending the Korean WarH.Despite the Korean War, Korea remained divided at the 38thParallelI.Eisenhower's leadership style of sincerity, fairness, and optimism helped to comfort the nation after the war
IV.The Rise and Fall of Joseph McCarthyA.In February 1950, Republican Senator Joseph R. McCarthy accused Secretary of State Dean Acheson of employing 205 Communist party membersB.Even though the accusations later proved to be false, McCarthy gained the support of the publicC.With the Republican victory in the election of 1952, his rhetoric became bolder ashis accusations of communism grewD.McCarthyism, the practice of spreading treasonous accusations without evidence, thrived during the Cold WarE.Though McCarthy was not the first red-hunter, he was the most ruthlessF.

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