SS 11TH APUSH OUTLINE E4.docx - The Whigs Disintegrate and New Parities Rise Slavery was dividing both political parties sectionally o Whigs ran war

SS 11TH APUSH OUTLINE E4.docx - The Whigs Disintegrate and...

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The Whigs Disintegrate and New Parities Rise - Slavery was dividing both political parties sectionally o Whigs ran war hero General Winfield Scott as presidential candidate (1852) to unify their party. o Southern Democrats wanted candidate that embraced Calhoun’s argument on territories being open to slavery, while northern/midwestern Democrats favored Lewis Cass of Michigan, Stephen Douglas of Illinois, and James Buchanan of Pennsylvania; all who advocated popular sovereignty. They settled for Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, who was sympathetic to South Pierce wins as Whigs were fragmented over slavery Proslavery Initiatives - Pierce pursued expansionist foreign policy o To assist northern merchants that wanted commercial empire, he negotiated trade-open treaty with Japan. To mollify southern expansionists that wanted plantation empire, he sought extensive Mexican lands south of the Rio Grande. Pierce goes for smaller land and makes the Gadsden Purchase of 1853 (Arizona and New Mexico), allowing for negotiator James Gadsden to build transcontinental rail line from New Orleans to Los Angeles - Most controversial initiatives were from Caribbean and Central America o Southern expansionists urged Cuban slave owners to join US and declare independence from Spain. Pierce threatened war with Spain and supported military expeditions in Cuba. o Secretary of State William L. Marcy arranged in 1854 to compose Ostend Manifesto, urging Pierce to seize Cuba, and Northern Democrats denounced aggressive initiatives and the planters’ dreams of expansions went into the Caribbean. The Kansas-Nebraska Act - Trans-Mississippi west had controversy in 1854 that destroyed Whig Party and the Union was headed to disaster. Missouri Compromise stopped slave states north of 36degree30’ and southern senators and prevented creation of new territories, but Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois wanted to open it for transcontinental railroad from Chicago to California. Douglas wanted to extinguish Natives’ rights on Great Plains and create Nebraska -

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