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APUSH DBQ #1: English Colonies, North and SouthHistorical Context:The sixteenth-century English intellect had plenty of fare for imaginative rumination. SirThomas More’sUtopia, translated into English in 1551, beckoned with its perfect society in Paradise, a smallisland somewhere in the New World. Richard Hakluyt interviewed many of the sailors and adventurers to thosenew lands and his edited travelogues of the 1580’s sparked expectations of wealth and plunder beyond anyone’sdreams. Even William Shakespeare contributed to this romantic geography with the captivating beauty ofProspero’s island inThe Tempest.The fantasy of far-away visions had a particular appeal to the residents of a troubled, turbulent England.The British Isles (and most of Europe) had rebounded from the catastrophic social and economic effects of theBlack Death two centuries earlier and land was at a population-boom premium. Increased prosperity broughtincreased trade, and worldwide mercantile networks and commercial expansion were underway. A primaryEnglish contribution to this new market system was wool, a commodity that made the conversion of formerlyopen feudal farmlands to the enclosed pasture profitable. Displaced peasants left the countryside and moved tomajor cities like London in search of livelihood, and the ranks of the urban poor swelled.Also in the sixteenth century, Henry VIII broke his country’s ties with the Catholic Church andestablished the Church of England with himself as head. Although this English chapter of the ProtestantReformation had more to do with dynastic succession and Henry’s hope for a son than theological dispute, hisactions nonetheless loosed religious dissent and sectarianism in his kingdom. The eventual ascension of hisCatholic daughter, Mary, re-established Catholicism in England for a time until Elizabeth I severed ties withRome a second time in 1558 and rekindled religious differences anew.Social, economic, and religious disjunctions pried up a population from its old traditions and ties. Whenthe time for English settlement of North America came, there was no shortage of candidates. Some came forwealth and some came for adventure. Some fled poverty while some others fled religious discrimination andpersecution. Their reasons for immigration were as different as the new lands they claimed and the communitiesthey founded. What precious little they shared in common, beyond English origins, was the fragile hope of abetter life in a better world. They were, as Captain John Smith of Jamestown tells us, people with “great spirit,but small means.”Directions: The following essay question is based on the accompanying documents inPart A.As you analyzethe documents, take into account both the source of the document and the author’s point of view.Be sure to:Carefully read the document-based question.

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