Biological Molecules 1 Biological Molecules What are the building blocks of life? Why? From the smallest single-celled organism to the tallest tree, all life depends on the properties and reactions of four classes of organic (carbon-based) compounds— carbohydrates , lipids , proteins , and nucleic acids . These organic molecules are the building blocks of all living things, and are responsible for most of the structure and functions of the body, including energy storage, insulation, growth, repair, communica- tion, and transfer of hereditary information. Simple organic molecules can be joined together to form all the essential biological molecules needed for life. Model 1 – Molecules of Life Carbohydrates (monosaccharides) Glucose Galactose Fructose Lipids Glycerol Fatty acids Triglyceride (fat or oil) Proteins (amino acids) Alanine Cysteine Amine group Nucleic acids (nucleotides) O OH H H H O H OH H OH H OH O OH H H O H H OH H OH H OH O OH H O H OH H H O H OH C C C H H OH H OH H H OH C O (CH 2 ) 12 CH 3 O H C O (CH 2 ) 7 CH=CH(CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 O H C C H H H O C O CH 3 OCO(CH 2 ) 7 CH=CH(CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 C H H O C CH 3 O C O (CH 2 ) 14 CH 3 O H C R H N C O OH H H C H N C O OH H H CH 2 SH C CH 3 H N C O OH H H N O O OH O H OH O P N N N NH 2 OH Variable R side chain Carboxylic acid group Nitrogen base Phosphate group Sugar Reactants → products O O O 8 8 O 00 000
2 POGIL ™ Activities for High School Biology 1. Use Model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. Carbohydrate— C, H, O c. Amino acid— b. Lipid— d. Nucleic acid— 2. Which type of molecule includes an example with a long-chain carbon backbone?
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- Fall '18
- Allison Davidson
- Nutrition, Carboxylic acid